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Flavonoids and organochlorines in honey from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

Yutaka Tashiro (School of International Studies, Meio University, Nago, Japan)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 10 May 2022

Issue publication date: 2 January 2023




The purpose of this study is to analyze the flavonoid composition and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in honey samples from different floral sources on the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, and to determine their nutritional characteristics and the risk of intaking hazardous pollutants.


Honey samples were collected from various regions of the Ryukyu Islands. Thirty-one samples were analyzed for six flavonoid compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, and OCs from 14 samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The differences in flavonoid composition among the samples from different floral sources were determined.


Honey from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip. contained high concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. One sample with polychlorinated biphenyls and two with chlordane compounds were detected in one region; however, their concentrations were lower than those for food regulations.


Novel chemical characteristics in Ryukyu honey, including high amounts of luteolin and apigenin from B. pilosa, were discovered, whereas low OC contamination was observed.



The cooperation of the beekeepers and citizens in Okinawa for the collecting of the samples in this study is acknowledged. The author is grateful to Dr Gloria Esther Luyo Acero de Tashiro for valuable comments on the research design and manuscript.


Tashiro, Y. (2023), "Flavonoids and organochlorines in honey from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 53 No. 1, pp. 71-81.



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