The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calcium-rich ingredients such as sesame, skimmed milk powder, moringa leaves, cumin seeds and finger millet on flour, dough and breads with the objective of developing bread with higher calcium content and to investigate whether it maintains quality traits that guarantee its acceptability by consumers by testing textural, scanning electron microscopy and nutritional and sensorial parameters.
Refined flour was fortified with skimmed milk powder (SMP), sesame, moringa leaves and cumin (T1), SMP, sesame and malted finger millet (T2) and SMP and sesame (T3). Refined flour dough and breads served as control (C). The physicochemical, textural, scanning electron microscopy, nutritional and sensory parameters of flour, dough and breads were evaluated.
Significantly (p < 0.01) higher stickiness values of dough were obtained by refined flour dough-C (50.3 N); refined flour dough fortified with SMP and sesame - T3 (42.2 N); Refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP and malted finger millet -T2 (38.4 N); and refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP, moringa leaves and cumin -T1 (33.5 N). Oven spring in breads was 1.4 in C and decreased significantly (p < 0.01) to T3-1.0, T1-0.9 and T2-0.8. Chewiness values of T3 (4.1) was similar to C bread, whereas T1 and T2 showed significantly (p < 0.01) lower values. Scanning electron microscopy images of bread microstructure showed fortification of bread resulted in intermittent but more prominent gluten structure in test breads than control. The highest calcium content was observed in T1 (268 mg/100 g), followed by T2 (231 mg/100 g) and T3 (211 mg/100 g). The incorporation of dried moringa leaves and cumin seeds enhanced the appearance, aroma, taste and flavor of T1.
The study shows that texturally and sensorially acceptable nutritious breads can be produced through natural fortification. Nutrients from naturally fortified foods are better absorbed and assimilated by the body. Calcium-fortified breads, each with its own distinctive taste and texture, showed high values in the sensory evaluation test.
The incorporation of calcium and protein-rich ingredients such as SMP, moringa leaves, cumin, malted finger millet and sesame would yield calcium enriched breads superior to the commonly consumed plain refined wheat flour bread with respect to textural, nutritional, functional and sensory attributes and have high potential to alleviate calcium deficiency in vulnerable groups.
Agrahar-Murugkar, D. and Dixit-Bajpai, P. (2020), "Physicochemical, textural, color, nutritional, scanning electron microscopy and sensorial characterization of calcium-rich breads fortified with sesame, malted finger millet, cumin and moringa leaves", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 50 No. 1, pp. 47-60. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-03-2019-0101
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