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Association between lifeline diet score (LLDS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): case-control study

Hawal Lateef Fateh (Department of Nursing, Kalar Technical Institute, Garmian Polytechnic University, Kurdistan, Iraq)
Sameeah Abdulrahman Rashid (Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 1 July 2024




Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent and multifaceted metabolic and endocrine disorder that affects a significant number of women in their reproductive years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the lifeline diet score (LLDS) and PCOS.


In this study, the authors enrolled 105 women who had recently been diagnosed with PCOS. 105 women without PCOS, matched for age and body mass index (BMI), were selected as the control group. The mean age of the participants was 34.80 ± 5.37 years old. Standardized procedures were used to measure anthropometric indicators and assess the body composition of each participant. To determine the dietary patterns, a validated and reliable 147-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered. Based on the responses to the FFQ, the LLDS was calculated using 12 specific components. Multiple and univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between LLDS and PCOS, considering various factors.


In the control group, the mean LLDS was 45.61 ± 9.67; while in the case group, the mean LLDS was 25.10 ± 7.49, respectively (P = 0.001). After adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES), age, protein, fat, physical activity and BMI, the probability of developing PCOS is 69% lower in the third tertiles of LLDS than in the first tertiles (OR = 0.31, CI 95% = 0.15–0.62), (P < 0.001).


The study finds that a higher LLDS correlates with reduced PCOS risk, echoing dietary advice to boost fruits, dairy, vegetables, legumes, poultry and grains while limiting pasta, rice, bread, eggs, red meat, sweets, sugar and hydrogenated fats.



The authors express gratitude to all of the participants.


Fateh, H.L. and Rashid, S.A. (2024), "Association between lifeline diet score (LLDS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): case-control study", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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