Quality evaluation and acceptability of cookies produced from wheat (
Triticum aestivum) flour substituted with avocado puree as fat substitute
Article publication date: 15 November 2022
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute.
Cookies were produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute in ratio 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. The formulation of margarine and avocado puree blends was done by using D-Optimal Mixture Design. In all, 20 samples were produced from each substitution level and analyses were done in triplicates to obtain mean values using standard methods. Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test, and significances were accepted at less than 5% confidence level (p < 0.05). Proximate and functional analyses were conducted on the flour samples, while cookie samples were subjected to proximate and sensory analyses.
The results of this study revealed that the values of loose bulk density, packed bulk density, oil absorption density, water absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility and dispersibility of the flours at p < 0.05 are 0.3–0.4 g/ml, 0.5–0.7 g/ml, 16.9%–94.0%, 39.7%–80.6%, 461.2%–618.2%, 6.0%–29.8% and 69.0%–82.8%, respectively. The moisture, protein, fat, total dietary fiber, total ash and carbohydrate contents of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 3.6%–16.7%, 6.5%–9.9%, 2.5%–19.2%, 1.7%–1.9%, 1.1%–3.0% and 65.0%–70.7%, respectively. The taste, color, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 7.4–7.8, 6.9–7.5, 7.2–7.9, 7.3–7.7 and 7.4–8.3, respectively. The sensory scores showed that panelists preferred the taste, crispiness and texture of the cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute at varying proportion. The sensory characteristics of sample WF4 (100% avocado puree) were rated overall best in all the parameters tested followed by sample WF3 (75% avocado puree). Hence, this study established the possibility of producing cookies from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute without a negative impact on the sensory characteristics and the consumers’ acceptability.
The cookies produced from this study are not meant for vegetarians because eggs were added in the formulations and recipes but could be valuable to ovo-vegetarians that may take food with eggs without restriction. The major challenge of this study was that avocados are very expensive in much of the world, so this is only suitable and viable where there is an excess of the fruit.
This study examined the use of avocado puree as fat substitute in cookie production. Effects of avocado puree on proximate composition and functionality of cookies produced from wheat flour were also determined. This approach was novel, and it will encourage the use of avocado for value-added in industrial food production.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Adeyeye, S.A.O., Bolaji, O.T., Abegunde, T.A., Emun, H.O. and Oyenubi, R.A. (2022), "Quality evaluation and acceptability of cookies produced from wheat (
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