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A comparative examination of dietary sodium content in bread and its public consumption pattern in Muscat, Oman

Majed AbuKhader (Department of Pharmacy, Oman Medical College, Muscat, Oman and College of Pharmacy, National University of Science and Technology, Muscat, Oman)
Rawan Abdelraziq (Department of Pharmacy, Oman Medical College, Muscat, Oman)
Maryam Al-Azawi (Department of Pharmacy, Oman Medical College, Muscat, Oman)
Salma Khamis Ali (Department of Pharmacy, Oman Medical College, Muscat, Oman)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Publication date: 31 July 2019

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and assess the sodium content in various pre-packed bread products marketed in three cities, Muscat, Morgantown (West Virginia) and Stockholm, and in combination with spread products. It also aims to investigate the pattern of public consumption of bread in Muscat.

Design/methodology/approach

A random cross-sectional investigation was followed. This study used the nutrition panel of selected bread and spread products to record sodium content and a close-ended questionnaire.

Findings

The mean sodium content in 100 g of bread marketed in Muscat was significantly lower than that in Morgantown (p < 0.001) and Stockholm (p < 0.022). The intake of 100 g of any bread type with 40 g of cheese spread will offer more than 20 per cent of the recommended daily intake of sodium, which poses a health risk upon frequent consumption. Results from the survey conducted in Muscat showed that most of the people consume bread in breakfast and the average amount of bread consumed per day was reported to be 100 g. Only 74.9 per cent of the participants knew that salt is added in the making of bread.

Originality/value

This research is of a value to food policymakers in relation to the use of salt (sodium) in bread. Sodium content in bread products varied significantly in the selected markets. Daily consumption of bread with cheese spreads should be either reduced or avoided by children because of high sodium content. Average intake of 100 g bread per day by participants in the survey is an indicator of a reduced exposure to sodium.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

Authors appreciate the help of Ms Dima Altattan for the help in data collection.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

There is no financial support for this research.

Citation

AbuKhader, M., Abdelraziq, R., Al-Azawi, M. and Ali, S.K. (2019), "A comparative examination of dietary sodium content in bread and its public consumption pattern in Muscat, Oman", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 50 No. 1, pp. 116-130. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-02-2019-0058

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited