The influence of CEO values and leadership on middle manager exchange behaviors: A longitudinal multilevel examination
Nankai Business Review International
Article publication date: 7 March 2016
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which chief executive officer (CEO) transactional and transformational leader behaviors as well as CEO self-enhancing versus self-transcendent values permeate through the organization to influence middle-level managers.
Using a multi-level longitudinal design, the authors collected self-reported value data from 32 CEOs and 119 top management team (TMT) members rated their CEOs on transactional and transformational leader behaviors at Time 1; 18 months later, TMTs rated the in-role behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of 331 mid-level managers. Also, at Time 2, mid-level managers evaluated their relationship with the organization in terms of economic and social exchange. HLM was used to analyze the data.
The authors found the positive relationship between transactional CEO leader behaviors and mid-level manager in-role behaviors to be enhanced when CEOs hold self-transcendent values, whereas this relationship was weakened by CEO self-enhancing values. Similarly, the relationship between CEO transformational leader behaviors and mid-level manager OCBs was found to be strengthened when leaders espoused self-transcendent values. Finally, the authors found that economic exchange mediated the relationship between the transactional leadership * self-enhancing values interaction term and mid-level manager in-role behaviors. Similarly, social exchange mediated the relationship between the transformational leadership * self-transcendent values interaction term and mid-level manager OCBs.
Liden, R., Fu, P., Liu, J. and Song, L. (2016), "The influence of CEO values and leadership on middle manager exchange behaviors: A longitudinal multilevel examination", Nankai Business Review International, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 2-20. https://doi.org/10.1108/NBRI-12-2015-0031
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