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Parametric mathematical modeling and 3D response surface analysis for rod to plate friction welding of AISI 1020 steel/AISI 1018 steel

Dhamothara kannan Thirumalaikkannan (Centre for Materials Joining and Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India)
Sivaraj Paramasivam (Centre for Materials Joining and Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India)
Balasubramanian Visvalingam (Centre for Materials Joining and Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India)
Tushar Sonar (Department of Welding Engineering, Institution of Engineering and Technology, South Ural State University (National Research University), Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation)
Sathiya Sivaraj (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India)

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures

ISSN: 1573-6105

Article publication date: 1 December 2022

Issue publication date: 2 January 2023

33

Abstract

Purpose

Rotary friction welding (RFW) was used to solve the issues in fusion welding of rod to plate joints of low carbon steel (AISI 1020 steel/AISI 1018 steel) such solidification cracking, wider heat affected zone (HAZ), lower HAZ hardness, high residual stresses and distortion. The main objective of this investigation is to develop parametric mathematic models (PMMs), 3D response surface analysis to predict tensile strength (TS) and weld interface hardness (WIH) of rod to plate joints and correlate microstructure with TS and WIH of rod to plate joints.

Design/methodology/approach

The three-factor x five-level central composite design (CCD) consisting fewer experiments was employed for designing experimental matrix. The tensile and microhardness tests were performed to evaluate mechanical performance of joints. The PMMs of TS and WIH of rod to plate joints were developed using polynomial regression equations incorporating the RFW parameters. The 3D response surfaces were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize RFW parameters for joining AISI 1020/AISI 1018 rod to plate.

Findings

The joints made using friction pressure/friction time (FRNP/FRNT) of 3.71 MPa/s, forging pressure/forging time (FRGP/FRGT) of 3.71 MPa/s and rotational speed (RTSP) of 19.99 rps exhibited higher TS and WIH of 452 MPa and 252 HV0.5. The PMMs accurately predicted TS and WIH of rod to plate joints at less than 1.5% error and 95% confidence. The RTSP revealed greater effect on TS and WIH of rod to plate joints followed by FRGP/FRGT and FRNP/FRNT. The superior TS and WIH of joints developed using optimized process parameters is correlated to the evolution of finer bainitic microstructure in weld interface due to the dynamic recrystallization of grains ensued by optimum frictional heating and plastic deformation.

Originality/value

The PMMs were developed for predicting TS and WIH of joints. The RFW parameters were optimized to enhance TS and WIH of joints. Low carbon steel rod to plates joints were developed using RFW for automotive applications without fusion welding defects. The microstructural features of low strength and high strength rod to plate joints were correlated to the TS and WIH of rod to plate joints.

Keywords

Citation

Thirumalaikkannan, D.k., Paramasivam, S., Visvalingam, B., Sonar, T. and Sivaraj, S. (2023), "Parametric mathematical modeling and 3D response surface analysis for rod to plate friction welding of AISI 1020 steel/AISI 1018 steel", Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 54-70. https://doi.org/10.1108/MMMS-08-2022-0148

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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