Vapor phase soldering (VPS), also known as condense soldering, is capable of improving the mechanical reliability of solder joints in electronic packaging structures. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
In the present study, VPS is utilized to assemble two typical packaging types (i.e. ceramic column grid array (CCGA) and BGA) for electronic devices with lead-containing and lead-free solders. By applying the peak soldering temperatures of 215°C and 235°C with and without vacuum condition, the void formation and intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness are compared for different packaging structures with lead-containing and lead-free solder alloys.
It is found that at the soldering temperature of 215°C, CCGA under a vacuum condition has fewer voids but BGA without vacuum environment has fewer voids despite of the existence of lead in solder alloy. In light of contradictory phenomenon about void formation at 215°C, a similar CCGA device is soldered via VPS at the temperature of 235°C. Compared with the size of voids formed at 215°C, no obvious void is found for CCGA with vacuum at the soldering temperature of 235°C. No matter what soldering temperature and vacuum condition are applied, the IMC thickness of CCGA and BGA can satisfy the requirement of 1.0–3.0 µm. Therefore, it can be concluded that the soldering temperature of 235°C in vacuum is the optimal VPS condition for void elimination. In addition, shear tests at the rate of 10 mm/min are performed to examine the load resistance and potential failure mode. In terms of failure mode observed in shear tests, interfacial shear failure occurs between PCB and bulk solder and also within bulk solder for CCGA soldered at temperatures of 215°C and 235°C. This means that an acceptable thicker IMC thickness between CCGA solder and device provides greater interfacial strength between CCGA and device.
Due to its high I/O capacity and satisfactory reliability in electrical and thermal performance, CCGA electronic devices have been widely adopted in the military and aerospace fields. In the present study, the authors utilized VPS to assemble a typical type of CCGA with the control package of conventional BGA to investigate the relation between essential condition (i.e. soldering temperature and vacuum) to void formation.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51508464), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (No. 2017JM1013), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 3102018ZY015) and the Astronautics Supporting Technology Foundation of China (No. 2017-HT-XG).
Huang, L., Zhu, Z., Wu, H. and Long, X. (2019), "Board-level vapor phase soldering (VPS) with different temperature and vacuum conditions", Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 353-364. https://doi.org/10.1108/MMMS-04-2018-0082Download as .RIS
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