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Tuneable PTC effect in polymer-wax-carbon composite resistors

Thomas Maeder (Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique (LPM), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland)
Caroline Jacq (Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique (LPM), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland)
Ludivine Ammon (Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique (LPM), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland)
Perer Ryser (Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique (LPM), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland)

Microelectronics International

ISSN: 1356-5362

Article publication date: 4 August 2014

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study tuneable positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect in polymer-wax-carbon composite resistors. The resistivity dependence on temperature of composite resistors made of carbon fillers dispersed in an organic matrix is known to be strongly affected by the matrix thermal expansion. High PTC effects, i.e. essentially switching from resistive to quasi-insulating behaviour, can be caused by phase changes in the matrix and the assorted volume expansion, a behaviour that has been previously shown with both simple organic waxes and semi-crystalline polymers. However, waxes become very liquid on melting, possibly resulting in carbon sedimentation, and tuneability of semi-crystalline polymers is limited.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors therefore study a ternary polymer-wax-conductor (ethylcellulose-octadecanol-graphite) composite resistor system, where polymer and wax fuse to a viscous liquid on heating, and re-solidify and separate by crystallisation of the wax on cooling.

Findings

It is shown that with appropriate formulation, the resulting resistors exhibit strong PTC effects, linked with the melting and crystallisation of the wax component. The behaviour somewhat depends on sample history, and notably cooling speed.

Research limitations/implications

The phase equilibria and transformation kinetics of the polymer-wax system (including possible wax polymorphism), as well as the exact mechanism of the conductivity transition, remain to be investigated.

Originality/value

As many compatible polymer-wax systems with different melting/solidification behaviours are available, ternary polymer-wax-conductor composite PTC resistors allow a high tuneability of properties. Moreover, the high viscosity in the liquid state should largely avoid the sedimentation issues present with binary wax-conductor systems.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge samples of KS4 graphite from TIMCAL (Bodio, Switzerland), as well as initial experiments with the system from former PhD student Nathalie Serra.

Citation

Maeder, T., Jacq, C., Ammon, L. and Ryser, P. (2014), "Tuneable PTC effect in polymer-wax-carbon composite resistors", Microelectronics International, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 143-148. https://doi.org/10.1108/MI-12-2013-0079

Publisher

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited