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Thermoelectric energy harvester fabricated in thick-film/LTCC technology

Piotr Markowski (Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland)

Microelectronics International

ISSN: 1356-5362

Article publication date: 4 August 2014




The purpose of this work was fabrication of a small energy harvester.


The multilayer thermoelectric power generator based on thick-film and low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was fabricated. Precise paths printing method was used to fabricate Ag/Ni and Ag/PdAg thermocouples on a number of unfired LTCC tapes. The tapes were put together to form a multilayer stack. The via holes were used to make the electrical connections between adjacent layers. Finally, the multilayer stack was fired in the appropriate thermal profile.


It consists of 450 thermocouples and generates output voltage of about 0.45 V and output electrical power of about 0.13 mW when a temperature difference along the structure is 135°C. In the paper, individual stages of energy harvester fabrication process as well as its output parameters are presented.


Miniaturized thermoelectric energy harvester based on thick-film and LTCC technology was fabricated. As materials, metal-based pastes were used. This is the first paper where multilayer thermoelectric harvester, fabricated with the aid of LTCC technology, was described.



This work was supported by the Polish National Science Centre, Grant No N N515 503240 and Wrocław University of Technology, Grants No S30066 and No B30104.


Markowski, P. (2014), "Thermoelectric energy harvester fabricated in thick-film/LTCC technology", Microelectronics International, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 176-185.



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