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Recent progress on bumpless Cu/SiO2 hybrid bonding for 3D heterogeneous integration

Ge Li (State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China)
Qiushi Kang (State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China)
Fanfan Niu (State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China)
Chenxi Wang (State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China)

Microelectronics International

ISSN: 1356-5362

Article publication date: 27 December 2022

84

Abstract

Purpose

Bumpless Cu/SiO2 hybrid bonding, which this paper aims to, is a key technology of three-dimensional (3D) high-density integration to promote the integrated circuits industry’s continuous development, which achieves the stacks of chips vertically connected via through-silicon via. Surface-activated bonding (SAB) and thermal-compression bonding (TCB) are used, but both have some shortcomings. The SAB method is overdemanding in the bonding environment, and the TCB method requires a high temperature to remove copper oxide from surfaces, which increases the thermal budget and grossly damages the fine-pitch device.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review, methods to prevent and remove copper oxidation in the whole bonding process for a lower bonding temperature, such as wet treatment, plasma surface activation, nanotwinned copper and the metal passivation layer, are investigated.

Findings

The cooperative bonding method combining wet treatment and plasma activation shows outstanding technological superiority without the high cost and additional necessity of copper passivation in manufacture. Cu/SiO2 hybrid bonding has great potential to effectively enhance the integration density in future 3D packaging for artificial intelligence, the internet of things and other high-density chips.

Originality/value

To achieve heterogeneous bonding at a lower temperature, the SAB method, chemical treatment and the plasma-assisted bonding method (based on TCB) are used, and surface-enhanced measurements such as nanotwinned copper and the metal passivation layer are also applied to prevent surface copper oxide.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 92164105 and 51975151), the Heilongjiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under grant LH2019E041 and the Heilongjiang Touyan Innovation Team Program (HITTY-20190013).

Citation

Li, G., Kang, Q., Niu, F. and Wang, C. (2022), "Recent progress on bumpless Cu/SiO2 hybrid bonding for 3D heterogeneous integration", Microelectronics International, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/MI-07-2022-0121

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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