To read this content please select one of the options below:

A novel miniaturized Koch-Minkowski hybrid fractal antenna

Zain Ul Abidin Jaffri (College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, China)
Zeeshan Ahmad (School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo, China)
Asif Kabir (Department of Computer Sciences and Information Technology, University of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Kotli, Pakistan)
Syed Sabahat Hussain Bukhari (College of Computer Science, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, China)

Microelectronics International

ISSN: 1356-5362

Article publication date: 17 November 2021

Issue publication date: 3 January 2022




Antenna miniaturization, multiband operation and wider operational bandwidth are vital to achieve optimal design for modern wireless communication devices. Using fractal geometries is recognized as one of the most promising solutions to attain these characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique structure of patch antenna using hybrid fractal technique to enhance the performance characteristics for various wireless applications and to achieve better miniaturization.


In this paper, the authors propose a novel hybrid fractal antenna by combining Koch and Minkowski (K-M) fractal geometries. A microstrip patch antenna (MPA) operating at 1.8 GHz is incorporated with a novel K-M hybrid fractal geometry. The proposed fractal antenna is designed and simulated in CST Microwave studio and compared with existing Koch fractal geometry. The prototype for the third iteration of the K-M fractal antenna is then fabricated on FR-4 substrate and tested through vector network analyzer for operating band/voltage standing wave ratio.


The third iteration of the proposed K-M fractal geometry results in achieving a 20% size reduction as compared to an ordinary MPA for the same resonant frequency with impedance bandwidth of 16.25 MHz and a directional gain of 6.48 dB, respectively. The operating frequency of MPA also lowers down to 1.44 GHz.


Further testing for the radiation patterns in an anechoic chamber shows good agreement to those of simulated results.



Jaffri, Z.U.A., Ahmad, Z., Kabir, A. and Bukhari, S.S.H. (2022), "A novel miniaturized Koch-Minkowski hybrid fractal antenna", Microelectronics International, Vol. 39 No. 1, pp. 22-37.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles