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Fabrication of fluorine and silver co-doped ZnO photodetector using modified hydrothermal method

Aminu Muhammad (Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Sule Lamido University, Kafin Hausa, Nigeria)
Sabah M. Mohammad (Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia)
Zainuriah Hassan (Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia)
Suvindraj Rajamanickam (Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia)
Shireen Mohammed Abed (Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia and Department of Physics, College Education for Pure Sciences, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq)
M.G.B. Ashiq (Department of Physics, College of Science, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia and Basic and Applied Scientific Research Center, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia)

Microelectronics International

ISSN: 1356-5362

Article publication date: 14 June 2022

Issue publication date: 2 January 2023

37

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to dope silver (Ag) and fluorine (F) in zinc oxide (ZnO) for the enhancement of electrical and optical properties of ZnO, as previous studies reported the improvement of these properties using individual doping of F and Ag. In this paper, F and Ag co-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydrothermal method was modified and used for the synthesis of the doped ZnO nanostructures, where stainless autoclave and oven were replaced with the Duran laboratory bottle and water boiler system in the process. The ultraviolet metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector (PD) was fabricated using DC sputtering method.

Findings

Vertically aligned nanorods images were captured from field emission scanning electron microscopy. XPS analysis confirmed greater spin-orbital interaction in the F and Ag co-doped ZnO sample and revealed the presence of F, Ag, Zn and O in the samples, indicating a successful doping process. X-ray diffraction revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with enhanced crystal quality upon co-doping. The bandgap decreased from 3.19 to 3.14 eV upon co-doping because of reduced defects density in the sample. Finally, an ultra-violet PD was fabricated with enhanced sensitivity and response times upon co-doping.

Originality/value

The low-cost, less energy-consuming Duran laboratory bottle and water boiler system were used as the substitute of expensive, more energy-consuming stainless autoclave and oven in a hydrothermal method for synthesis of F and Ag co-doped ZnO and subsequent fabrication of PD.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology and the School of Physics at Universiti Sains University (USM) for supporting this research and providing the appropriate research environment. Their gratitude also goes to the Research Creativity and Management Office (RCMO) USM, for supporting us with the Short-Term grant (304.CINOR.6315364). The first author also expresses gratitude to Sule Lamido University in Kafin-Hausa, Jigawa State, Nigeria, for providing a research scholarship through the Nigerian Government's tertiary fund (Tet-Fund) agency.

Citation

Muhammad, A., Mohammad, S.M., Hassan, Z., Rajamanickam, S., Abed, S.M. and Ashiq, M.G.B. (2023), "Fabrication of fluorine and silver co-doped ZnO photodetector using modified hydrothermal method", Microelectronics International, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1108/MI-03-2022-0045

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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