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Reduction of dielectric constant of LTCC substrates by introduction of controlled porosity

Beata Synkiewicz (Kraków Division, Institute of Electron Technology, Kraków, Poland)

Microelectronics International

ISSN: 1356-5362

Article publication date: 1 August 2016




This paper aims to present a method for the reduction of dielectric constant of low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) substrates with the use of controlled internal porosity.


A glass-ceramic green tape with addition of graphite as a pore former was developed. The green tapes were laminated and then sintered into multilayer structures with porous interior and thin external dense layers. Microstructure of green and fired structures was studied using optical and scanning microscopy. The behavior of the samples during heating was examined in a heating microscope. Impedance spectroscopy was applied for investigation of dielectric properties of the fabricated substrates.


Microstructure and dielectric properties of the fabricated LTCC structures were compared with the characteristics for non-porous samples with the similar composition. Introduction of 50 Wt.% admixture of graphite in the internal layers of the LTCC substrate was found to result in decrease in dielectric constant value down to about 3. Application of non-porous outer layers improved mechanical strength of the structure and smoothness of its surface, allowing screen printing of conductive pastes on both sides of the substrate.

Practical implications

The rapid growth of the wireless communication industry has created a great demand for the development of new and improved materials and devices operating properly at high frequencies. The fabricated materials can be useful for substrates of microwave devices.


The paper presents an innovative method of dielectric constant decrease of substrate materials. Getting insight into the phenomena responsible for formation of pores is crucial for designing materials for microwave electronics.



The work has been financially supported by ITE PhD Project No. 53.06.008 and National Centre for Research and Development, Poland, under the PBS project AktiScan, No. 244640.


Synkiewicz, B. (2016), "Reduction of dielectric constant of LTCC substrates by introduction of controlled porosity", Microelectronics International, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 124-129.



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