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Willemite with Li2CO3 as a sintering aid for LTCC microwave substrates

Beata Synkiewicz-Musialska (Department of Microelectronics, Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Electron Technology, Kraków, Poland)

Microelectronics International

ISSN: 1356-5362

Article publication date: 7 May 2020

Issue publication date: 21 May 2020




The purpose of this paper is to report on fabrication procedure and present microstructure and dielectric behavior of willemite ceramic material with addition of 5% Li2CO3 as a sintering aid.


The samples were fabricated by ball milling of the ceramic powders, preparation of granulate and pressing and co-firing using temperature profile based on heating microscope observation. The dielectric properties of the material were measured by impedance spectroscopy (Hz-MHz), transmission method (GHz) and time domain spectroscopy (THz). The composition and microstructure of the material were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Ceramic powder was used to fabricate a green tape and low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) multilayer structures, which in the next steps of the research were examined at the angle of cooperation with conductive pastes, strength and geometric repeatability.


The fabricated material showed low sintering temperature (920°C–960°C), low dielectric constant 6.2–6.34 and low dissipation factor at the level of 0.004–0.007. As LTCC material, willemite with 5% Li2CO3 addition showed good compatibility with AgPd conductive paste.


Search for new materials with low dielectric constant, applicable in LTCC technology, and development of their fabrication procedure are important tasks for the progress in modern microwave circuits.



This work has been financially supported by ITE PhD project no. 53.06.008 and by the National Center for Research and Development, Poland, contract no. PBS3/B3/18/2015.


Synkiewicz-Musialska, B. (2020), "Willemite with Li2CO3 as a sintering aid for LTCC microwave substrates", Microelectronics International, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 67-72.



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