Animal liquid manure contains large amounts of phosphorus (P), which is susceptible to runoff losses when manure is surface-applied on farms as a soil amendment. Even very small quantities of P can have a large impact on waterways and lead to eutrophication. Previous studies have shown that flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a coal combustion by-product, can reduce P losses from runoff in soils. Therefore, the authors hypothesize that FGD gypsum could reduce nutrients in liquid manure prior to field applications. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of FGD gypsum to reduce P and suspended solids (SS) concentrations in liquid manure, also determining its proper rate(s) and minimum time of reaction.
The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates. Each plot was constituted by a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column (1 m height and 0.15 m diameter). Dairy liquid manure and FGD gypsum rates (0, 0.62, 1.25 and 2.5 mgl−1) were added to the PVC columns and manually shaken for two minutes. Sampling was performed at 0.35, 0.65 and 0.95 m depths after 0 (immediately after shaking), 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. Amount of phosphorus was determined by a colorimetric method and solids concentration by mass difference.
FGD gypsum reduced P concentrations in the liquid manure after four hours of reaction. The most effective rate was 0.62 mgl−1at a 0.35 m depth. FGD gypsum increased SS concentrations in depth in all treatments.
There are growing concerns regarding the fate of nutrients, especially phosphorus, from land application of animal waste. The results indicated that treating liquid manure in the settling tanks with FGD gypsum before field application can be particularly useful on farms where surface-manure is applied, reducing potential losses of P following manure applications, and consequently the eutrophication risk to waterways.
Michalovicz, L., Dick, W.A., Cervi, E.C., Tormena, C.A. and Müller, M.M.L. (2017), "Flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a chemical amendment to reduce the concentrations of phosphorus and suspended solids in liquid manure", Management of Environmental Quality, Vol. 28 No. 5, pp. 624-631. https://doi.org/10.1108/MEQ-09-2015-0172Download as .RIS
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited