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A cradle-to-cradle analysis in the toner cartridge supply chain using fuzzy recycling production approach

Chun-Wei Lin (Institute of Innovation and Circular Economy, Asia University Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan)
Shiou-Yun Jeng (Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Taiwan)
Ming-Lang Tseng (Institute of Innovation and Circular Economy, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan)
Raymond Tan (De la Salle University, Manila, Philippines)

Management of Environmental Quality

ISSN: 1477-7835

Article publication date: 9 November 2018

Issue publication date: 22 February 2019




The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated approach for a green product cradle-to-cradle (C2C) fuzzy recycling production planning model.


This paper applies the failure mode and effects analysis technique and Taguchi experimental design method, develops a green product C2C performance evaluation system that considers the fuzzy impacts of environmental laws and regulations, green goodwill, and environmental efficiency of targeting countries, and decides both the optimal green production plan and estimated optimal life cycles.


This study compares the different degree of maturity in environmental regulations, and various recycling situations are simulated to demonstrate the successful applicability of the proposed model as well as the incentive policy for Taiwan, the USA and Bangladesh.


Previous studies failed both to develop a holistic recycling production plan which is able to consider both the optimal combination of recycled components used and final green products produced with the maximum total resultant sales profit and to consider the potential failure phenomenon of recycled components adopted in the final product. Furthermore, most prior studies ignored the influence of environmental law, goodwill of the product and the efficiency of recycling mechanism of the community.



This work was partially supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (NSC 102-2221-E-224-076). This article forms part of a special section “Approach to management for environmental quality through sustainable consumption and production indicators”.


Lin, C.-W., Jeng, S.-Y., Tseng, M.-L. and Tan, R. (2019), "A cradle-to-cradle analysis in the toner cartridge supply chain using fuzzy recycling production approach", Management of Environmental Quality, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 329-345.



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