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Building a case against strategic equifinality: Hybrid ideal type service organizations in a developing country

Melih Madanoglu (College of Business, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA)
Fevzi Okumus (Rosen College of Hospitality Management, The University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA)
Umut Avci (School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey)

Management Decision

ISSN: 0025-1747

Article publication date: 8 July 2014




The purpose of this paper is to build a case against strategic equifinality. This is accomplished by employing hybrid ideal types approach and testing the effect of these strategic types on firm performance among service firms in the context of a developing country.


Data were collected via a self-administered survey. The final sample of this study encompassed 169 ideal type hybrid companies operating in the tourism industry in Mugla, Turkey.


The research findings indicate that prospectors and hybrid prospector-analyzer (PA) orientations outperform defenders based on several financial and non-financial performance measures. However, all other strategic orientations show identical performance.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings imply that adopting a hybrid strategy is a viable option. In addition, SMEs in developing countries should exercise some caution when deciding to adopt a defender strategy.


This study uses hybrid ideal types for service firms in a dynamic business environment in a developing country.



Madanoglu, M., Okumus, F. and Avci, U. (2014), "Building a case against strategic equifinality: Hybrid ideal type service organizations in a developing country", Management Decision, Vol. 52 No. 6, pp. 1174-1193.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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