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The Internet of Things (IoT): a survey of techniques, operating systems, and trends

Elham Ali Shammar (Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Computer and Information Technology, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen)
Ammar Thabit Zahary (Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Computer and Information Technology, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen)

Library Hi Tech

ISSN: 0737-8831

Article publication date: 9 October 2019

Issue publication date: 6 April 2020

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3809

Abstract

Purpose

Internet has changed radically in the way people interact in the virtual world, in their careers or social relationships. IoT technology has added a new vision to this process by enabling connections between smart objects and humans, and also between smart objects themselves, which leads to anything, anytime, anywhere, and any media communications. IoT allows objects to physically see, hear, think, and perform tasks by making them talk to each other, share information and coordinate decisions. To enable the vision of IoT, it utilizes technologies such as ubiquitous computing, context awareness, RFID, WSN, embedded devices, CPS, communication technologies, and internet protocols. IoT is considered to be the future internet, which is significantly different from the Internet we use today. The purpose of this paper is to provide up-to-date literature on trends of IoT research which is driven by the need for convergence of several interdisciplinary technologies and new applications.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive IoT literature review has been performed in this paper as a survey. The survey starts by providing an overview of IoT concepts, visions and evolutions. IoT architectures are also explored. Then, the most important components of IoT are discussed including a thorough discussion of IoT operating systems such as Tiny OS, Contiki OS, FreeRTOS, and RIOT. A review of IoT applications is also presented in this paper and finally, IoT challenges that can be recently encountered by researchers are introduced.

Findings

Studies of IoT literature and projects show the disproportionate importance of technology in IoT projects, which are often driven by technological interventions rather than innovation in the business model. There are a number of serious concerns about the dangers of IoT growth, particularly in the areas of privacy and security; hence, industry and government began addressing these concerns. At the end, what makes IoT exciting is that we do not yet know the exact use cases which would have the ability to significantly influence our lives.

Originality/value

This survey provides a comprehensive literature review on IoT techniques, operating systems and trends.

Keywords

Citation

Shammar, E.A. and Zahary, A.T. (2020), "The Internet of Things (IoT): a survey of techniques, operating systems, and trends", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 5-66. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHT-12-2018-0200

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited