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Prototyping technology adoption among entrepreneurship and innovation libraries for rural health innovations

Varun Gupta (Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Alcala, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain) (Multidisciplinary Research Centre for Innovations in SMEs (MrciS), GISMA University of Applied Sciences, Potsdam, Germany) (University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada) (Instytut Zarzadzania, Uniwersytet Szczecinski, Szczecin, Poland)
Chetna Gupta (Department of Computer Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida, India)
Jakub Swacha (Instytut Zarzadzania, Uniwersytet Szczecinski, Szczecin, Poland)
Luis Rubalcaba (Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Alcala, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain)

Library Hi Tech

ISSN: 0737-8831

Article publication date: 21 June 2023




The purpose of this research study is to empirically investigate the Figma prototyping technology adoption factors among entrepreneurship and innovation libraries for providing support to startups by developing and evolving the prototype solutions in collaboration with health libraries.


This study uses the technology adoption model (TAM) as a framework and the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method of structural equation modeling (SEM) using SmartPLS 3.2.9 software version to investigate the prototyping adoption factors among entrepreneurship and innovation libraries for rural health innovations. A total of 40 libraries, spread over 16 entrepreneurship and innovation libraries, participated in this survey, including participants from Europe (35%), Asia (15%) and USA (50%).


The findings show that previous experience, social impact, brand image and system quality have a significant positive impact on entrepreneurship and innovation libraries' perceived usefulness (PU) of prototyping technology. Perceived ease of use of prototype technology is positively influenced by usability, training materials and documentation, experience and self-efficacy. Together, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have a significant influence on behavioural intention. Behavioural intention is positively impacted by minimal investment and shallow learning curve. Technology adoption is furthered by behavioural intention. The control variables, for instance location, gender and work experience (as librarian), were found not having any impact on Figma technology adoption.

Research limitations/implications

Through strategic partnerships with other libraries (including health libraries), policymakers, and technology providers, the adoption of prototype technology can be further accelerated. The important ramifications for policymakers, technology providers, public and entrepreneurship and innovation libraries to create a self-reliant innovation ecosystem to foster rural health innovation based on entrepreneurship are also listed in the article.


This research is distinctive since it integrates several areas of study, including entre, advances in rural healthcare and libraries. A novel idea that hasn't been thoroughly investigated is the collaboration between entrepreneurship and innovation libraries and health libraries for supporting businesses. This study offers insights into the factors that drive technology adoption and offers practical advice for policymakers and technology providers. It also advances understanding of the adoption of Figma prototyping technology among libraries for rural health innovation. Overall, this study provides a novel viewpoint on the nexus between different disciplines, showing the opportunity for cooperation and innovation in favour of rural health.



The research's authors would like to acknowledge all the library staff members who took part in the study.

Author contributions: Conceptualization, V.G.; methodology, V.G.; software, V.G. and C.G.; validation, V.G. and C.G.; formal analysis, V.G., C.G., J.S and L.R.; investigation, V.G.; resources, V.G. and C.G.; data curation, V.G., C.G., J.S and L.R.; writing—original draft preparation, V.G.; writing—review and editing, V.G., C.G., J.S. and L.R.; visualization, V.G., C.G., J.S. and L.R.; supervision, L.R.; project administration, V.G., C.G., J.S. and L.R.; funding acquisition, V.G. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding: This research is funded by the European Union's Horizon research and innovation programme (Project ID: 101061516, Project Acronym: LibrarIN). This publication solely reflects the views of the authors, and the Agency cannot be held responsible for any use made of the information contained herein. The paper was also co-funded by Winning Scientific Management, Portugal (Project ID: WINBUSMOD001).

Institutional review board statement: The conducted study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of GISMA University of Applied Sciences, Potsdam, Germany under protocol number 02/2023.

Informed Consent Statement: Before beginning to acquire data from research participants, researchers obtained their informed consent. They were fully informed of the study's goals, the research techniques to be used, the result's non-disclosure, the privacy of personal data, and how their responses will be used in the research study.

Data availability statement: Data will be provided upon reasonable request to the correspondence author. As stated in the informed consent statement, the individual responses are confidential. It may take several months to negotiate data usage agreements and obtain access to the data.

Conflicts of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information: The study planning, data collection, analysis and drafting were conducted at the University of Alcala (Spain), GISMA University of Applied Sciences (Germany), MrciS (Germany) and Uniwersytet Szczeciski (Poland). The paper was enriched by incorporating perspectives obtained during a research visit to the University of Toronto (Canada), which led to extended discussions and improvements in its content. Subsequently, the paper underwent further modifications, while maintaining the planned research protocol, data collection and reported results unchanged.


Gupta, V., Gupta, C., Swacha, J. and Rubalcaba, L. (2023), "Prototyping technology adoption among entrepreneurship and innovation libraries for rural health innovations", Library Hi Tech, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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