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Substitute vs permanent teacher job satisfaction: applying MUSA to delineate differences and highlight evidence-based guidelines for decision makers

Niki Glaveli (Department of Business Administration, University of the Aegean School of Business, Chios, Greece)
Panagiotis Manolitzas (Department of Tourism, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece)
Evangelos Grigoroudis (Department of Engineering and Production Management, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece)


ISSN: 0368-492X

Article publication date: 6 December 2022




The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to explore the importance of specific work environment facets for the overall job satisfaction (JS) of primary full-time permanent teachers (PTs) and substitute/temporary teachers (STs). Second, to highlight the similarity or difference in JS patterns among PTs and STs. Third, to provide guidelines for effective evidence-based human resource management (HRM) interventions targeting to boost PTs and STs JS levels by considering: (1) the perceived importance of individual work facets for them and (2) the school's performance in providing a satisfactory work environment.


Data on overall and important JS facets (i.e. satisfaction with opportunities for self-fulfillment, work intensity/load, salary/income, leadership and collegial relations) were collected from a sample of 438 PTs and STs in Greece. Moreover, MUSA, a method that combines Multi-Criteria Decision (MCDA) and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA), was applied to uncover the critical work environment facets of PTs and STs overall JS that call for interventions.


The findings suggest that PTs seem to value, more than STs, the transactional and economic aspects of the school environment. More precisely, on the part of PTs, self-fulfillment and salary/income are the main contributors to their JS, whilst leadership is the least important facet of JS. For STs self-fulfillment and collegial relationships are the aspects of work that contribute the most to their overall JS, whilst salary/income is the least important contributor. The study results further indicate that self-fulfillment is the strong attribute of Greek schools' work environment in boosting TJS regardless teachers' status, whilst salary/income and workload are potential threats.


It is one of the few studies that provide insights into the differing JS patterns of STs and PTs through the application of a MCDA/IPA method. Therefore, it offers evidence-based guidelines that take into consideration both the school's performance (overall and facet JS) and importance of core aspects of the work experience for STs and PTs.



Glaveli, N., Manolitzas, P. and Grigoroudis, E. (2022), "Substitute vs permanent teacher job satisfaction: applying MUSA to delineate differences and highlight evidence-based guidelines for decision makers", Kybernetes, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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