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A new technology acceptance model: a mixed-method of grounded theory and system dynamics

Mahdi Bastan (School of Industrial Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)
Masoumeh Zarei (Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Eyvanekey, Garmsar, Iran)
Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam (School of Industrial Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran and LCFC, Arts et Metiers ParisTech - Centre de Metz, Metz, France)
Hamed Shakouri G. (School of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)


ISSN: 0368-492X

Article publication date: 1 February 2021




The Iranian construction industry has been grappling with numerous problems in recent years, including rework, high costs and design errors. Engineers in this field have always highlighted the use of modern technological methods of construction to improve quality and productivity and reduce time and cost. One of these technologies is the so-called building information modeling (BIM), which has been very difficult to adopt and implement in Iran. The purpose of this study is to propose a systemic and holistic model to analyze the dynamics of adoption and implementation of BIM in this country. The purpose of this paper is to understand the dynamics of BIM acceptance to identify the most effective policy to maximize it in the Iranian manufacturing industry.


A two-stage methodology has been developed to achieve the purpose of the research. In the first stage, a technology acceptance model for BIM acceptance was developed using the grounded theory (GT) method. This conceptual model provides a holistic basis for building a simulation model. Thus, in the second stage, we used the dynamics system methodology to extract a dynamic model from the conceptual one. This dynamic model can simulate different policies and may be used to evaluate their respective effectiveness.


In this study, using the GT method, we obtained 510 primary codes, 118 secondary codes, 50 concepts and 17 categories. After determining the relationships between categories through axial coding, we reached a conceptual model based on selective coding. Mention some of the variables of the conceptual model. Awareness, security, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are some of the most important variables of this model. In the next part, this conceptual model was run using system dynamics and, thus, turned into a causal model in which all the effective variables on BIM technology and their relationships with each other are specified. The stock and flow diagram of the problem and its related equations were presented. To improve the model and solve the problem, we examined the four policies as four future scenarios on the model: continuing the status quo, development of specialist workforce training, bolstering governmental support and increasing awareness via advertisement within. The simulation results showed that government support is the most effective policy for maximizing BIM acceptance in Iran.

Practical implications

In addition to enumerating all the factors affecting BIM technology, this paper proposes a systemic model that provides an accurate and comprehensive view of the acceptance of this technology. In this regard, by introducing feedback loops, as well as reinforcing and balancing factors versus factors causing stasis, the model offers a much deeper insight into mechanisms associated with BIM development and its barriers. Therefore, this study provides a very useful perspective and basis for policy-makers and all stakeholders to accept and implement BIM technology. The findings of this study can lead to more accurate policy-making, removal of acceptance barriers, promotion of incentives, and consequently more effective acceptance of BIM technology.


In this study, a new mixed research method was used. The innovation of our study lies in its simultaneous use of GT method to construct an accurate and holistic model and applying the system dynamics methodology to build a holistic and systemic model of the BIM acceptance problem. This research also provides a suitable standard and tool for studying BIM technology in developing countries.



Bastan, M., Zarei, M., Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. and G., H.S. (2021), "A new technology acceptance model: a mixed-method of grounded theory and system dynamics", Kybernetes, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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