# The impacts of negative problem orientation on perceived risk and travel intention in the context of COVID-19: a PLS-SEM approach

Ümit Şengel (Department of Tourism Guidance, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Sakarya, Turkey)
Gökhan Genç (Independent Researcher, Sakarya, Turkey)
Merve Işkın (Social Sciences Vocational School, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey)
Mustafa Çevrimkaya (Department of Tourism Guidance, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Sakarya, Turkey)
Ioannis Assiouras (Institute of Sustainable Business and Organizations - Sciences and Humanities Confluence Research Center - UCLY, ESDES, Lyon, France)
Burhanettin Zengin (Department of Tourism Guidance, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Sakarya, Turkey)
Mehmet Sarıışık (Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Sakarya, Turkey)
Dimitrios Buhalis (School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK)

ISSN: 2055-5911

Article publication date: 11 April 2022

921

## Abstract

### Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic, which appeared in China in late 2019, has affected the world psychologically, socially and economically in 2020. Tourism is one of the areas where the effects of COVID-19 have been felt most clearly. The study aims to determine the effect of negative problem orientation (NPO) and perceived risk related to the COVID-19 pandemic on travel and destination visit intention.

### Design/methodology/approach

This study employed a convenience and probabilistic sampling method for collecting data from 531 respondents using an online questionnaire. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used for testing research model.

### Findings

According to the findings, NPO and perceived risk related to the pandemic were found to have direct and indirect effects on the travel behavior of tourists. The results of this research provide theoretical and practical implications for hospitality and travel businesses on topics such as the psychological effects of the pandemic and the travel behaviors of tourists.

### Originality/value

It is estimated that the pandemic will also affect tourist behavior due to its effects on human psychology. For this reason, a study conducted in the context of tourist behavior theories is expected to contribute to the literature, managers and future of the tourism.

## Citation

Şengel, Ü., Genç, G., Işkın, M., Çevrimkaya, M., Assiouras, I., Zengin, B., Sarıışık, M. and Buhalis, D. (2022), "The impacts of negative problem orientation on perceived risk and travel intention in the context of COVID-19: a PLS-SEM approach", Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-05-2021-0130

## Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Ümit Şengel, Gökhan Genç, Merve Işkın, Mustafa Çevrimkaya, Ioannis Assiouras, Burhanettin Zengin, Mehmet Sarıışık and Dimitrios Buhalis

## Introduction

The virus COVID-19 first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since spread globally (Li et al., 2020a; Shim et al., 2020; Lancaster et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2020; He et al., 2020). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic (Shi et al., 2020; Lau et al., 2020) which has affected many (Roncon et al., 2020; Perini et al., 2020; Ahmadi et al., 2020) and a cure for the virus remains elusive at the time of publication (Singh et al., 2020).

The tourism industry has been gaining value all over the world (Sio-Chong and So, 2020). Many countries invest in tourism due to its economic contribution (Chen, 2011). Tourism has a considerable impact on countries; however, tourism is also vulnerable to crises (Inchausti-Sintes, 2015). The tourism industry has a dynamic structure. Due to high levels of tourism and human movement globally, tourism has been called hypermobile (Hall, 2010). Yet crisis events or disasters can shake the tourism industry (Kuo et al., 2008). Due to the phenomenon of globalization, tourism movements at a destination can be adversely affected by a crisis or events occurring in a different destination (Mao et al., 2010). Events such as the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the 1999 Taiwan and Turkey earthquakes, the September 11 attacks of 2001 in the USA (Wang, 2009; Chen, 2011), tsunamis in Japan date and Indonesia date are just a few examples of these crises (Kuo et al., 2008). However, health related crises (Novelli et al., 2018) have impacted on global tourism deeply, for example the Avian Influenza 2005 and the 2003 SARS outbreak (Sio-Chong and So, 2020). SARS was first identified in Guandong province, China in March 2003 (Wallis and Nerlich, 2005) and it was reported that the SARS epidemic affected Taiwan hotel stock price Chen et al. (2007).

The health sector has been adversely affected by the increasing number of COVID-19 cases (Kavoor et al., 2020). The pandemic has also adversely affected tourism as it has reduced or prevented human mobility. For example, the hotel industry in China reported a 71% decline between 23–26 January (Yang et al., 2020) and as the pandemic has spread these effects have been replicated across the globe as of 2020. UNWTO (2020a) states that as of January 2020, there has been a shrinkage of between 3% and 4% in global tourism movements as a result of COVID-19. It is thought that this contraction will be around 20–30% in the future. It is estimated that there will be a decrease of $30–50 billion in tourist spending globally. However, continued uncertainty in relation to the pandemic is predicted to have even greater impact. It is also recognized that these negative effects will significantly affect small businesses in the hospitality industry. To understand the potential outcomes, it may be helpful to consider experiences from previous outbreaks in an attempt to reduce these negative effects. Thus, this understanding may contribute to the re-development of tourism involving the coordination of planning and management and other stakeholders and organizations related to tourism (Page et al., 2006). Tourism or travel demand is generally flexible in terms of safety and health (Rittichainuwat and Chakraborty, 2009; Mao et al., 2010). It has been found in many studies that tourists prefer safe places rather than risky destinations (Anderson, 2006; Liu et al., 2016). After the wake of the pandemic, tourists have canceled travel reservations as countries have imposed entry and exit bans. It is thought that the pandemic will affect national economies negatively for the medium to long term (Hoque et al., 2020). The effects of COVID-19 on the tourism and travel industry have also been encountered in previous epidemic periods. When the 2003 SARS epidemic (UNWTOa), similar to COVID-19, was experienced, global tourism revenues fell by 1.2% to$ 694 billion, according to data from the World Tourism Organization (Wilder-Smith, 2006). The epidemic negatively affected all sectors of the tourism industry such as accommodation, food and beverage, events and travel (Chen et al., 2007). In particular, tourism within Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Vietnam was significantly affected (McAleer et al., 2010). As COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, these effects are expected to be more severe and experienced at a global level.

It is estimated that the pandemic will also affect tourist behavior due to its effects on human psychology. For this reason, a study conducted in the context of tourist behavior theories is expected to contribute to the literature. This study aims to determine the mediating role of perceived risk and travel intention on negative problem orientation (NPO) and destination visit intention in the context of COVID-19. Because, it has been recognized that the pandemic has caused people to develop NPOs and has increased their risk perceptions, especially due to its psychological effects (Zheng et al., 2020; Odriozola-González et al., 2020). The subject of perceived risk is one of the crucial factors in shaping behavior in tourism (Mitchell and Vassos, 1997; Lepp and Gibson, 2003). Risk perception can therefore be expressed as an important factor influencing travelers when making travel decisions (Moutinho, 1987; Sönmez and Graefe, 1998a, b; Law, 2006). In addition, the fact that the NPO tested in the research has not been used in prior tourist psychology and tourist behavior studies, making this research important in the context of the literature.

## Theoretical background, hypotheses and model

### Negative problem orientation

NPO is defined as a series of beliefs that express suspicion about the ability to solve problems and a tendency to be pessimistic about results (Robichaud and Dugas, 2005). As a concept, it developed within the worry literature (Borkovec, 1985; Matthews, 1990) and one of the first important studies in the field claimed that an individual's trust in problem-solving abilities creates anxiety (Davey et al., 1992). Later, in the problem orientation literature, some researchers suggested that problem solving trust is a part of individuals that is prone to developing positive or negative behaviors toward problems (D'Zurilla and Nezu, 1990). In other words, it includes the cognitive, affective and behavioral responses of the person toward problematic situations. NPO has often been used in psychological research, although no studies have been found in which tourist psychology is associated with NPO. It is likely that potential tourists may feel anxious about negative problems and this will result in negative attitudes. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the effects of negative attitudes on tourist behavior. NPO is evaluated together with basic problems such as worry, uncertainty, anxiety, depression and problem solving (Dugas et al., 1997). Here, especially the concept of anxiety is the subject of studies that affect the NPO (Koerner and Dugas, 2006; Williams, 2015). Since COVID-19 carries some anxiety and uncertainty about traveling, it affects the NPO.

According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), behavioral intent is influenced by attitudes or subjective norms. Tourist attitudes are explained as psychological tendencies expressed by positive or negative evaluations toward certain behaviors (Kraus, 1995). Potential tourist attitudes are very important in predicting future holiday plans. Limbu et al. (2012) stated that the consumer's attitudes toward a product will affect their intention to purchase that product and it is acknowledged that there is a positive relationship between attitude and intention (Liu and Yu, 2012). Jalilvand et al. (2012) also concluded that tourist attitude has a significant effect on travel intention, and it is an effective determinant of tourists' decision to travel to a destination (Jalilvand and Samiei, 2012). Therefore, attitudes are expected to have an impact on the potential intentions of tourists. Therefore, negative attitudes are likely to lead to negative intentions.

H1.

Negative problem orientation has a statistically significant relationship with perceived risk toward COVID-19.

H2.

Negative problem orientation toward COVID-19 has a statistically significant relationship with travel intention after the pandemic.

H3.

Negative problem orientation toward COVID-19 has a statistically significant relationship with destination visit intention after the pandemic.

### Perceived risk

Safety and security are an important component in travelers' intentions to visit a destination (Beirman, 2003). This is the risk phenomenon that creates the need for safety and security. Risk is defined as the probability of an undesirable event that leads to possible negative consequences of the consumer's behavior (Glaesser, 2003; Laws and Prideaux, 2005; Li et al., 2020b; Kyrylov et al., 2020). Risk can arise in the context of multiple dimensions within the consumers' mind. These take place in the literature as financial, performance, physical, psychological, social and general risks (Sweeney et al., 1999; Pires et al., 2004; Fuchs and Reichel, 2004; Koç et al., 2019; Smith and Merritt, 2020; Fraser et al., 2020).

Consumers often tend to gravitate toward the least harm rather than the highest benefit in their purchasing decisions, so the issue of perceived risk is an important issue in understanding consumer behavior during the purchase decision process (Mitchell, 1999). Travel research emphasizes that the lack of security and safety is a major concern for tourists (Poon and Adams, 2000). These risks are examined in the literature within four main areas, war and political instability (Gartner and Shen, 1992; Clements and Georgiou, 1998; Ioannides and Apostolopoulos, 1999; Seddighi et al., 2001; Ivanov et al., 2017), health concerns (Cossens and Gin, 1994; Lawton and Page, 1997; Clift, 2000; Bushell, 2001; Richter, 2003; UNWTO, 2020b), crime and disorder (Sönmez, 1998; Pizam, 1999; Brunt et al., 2000; George, 2010; Mawby, 2014) and terrorism (Lutz and Lutz, 2020; Seabra et al., 2020).

The fact that tourists do not know what these risks will cause poses the real risk (Wilks and Page, 2006). Safety and security are also factors that can lead to risk and negative attitudes for potential tourists. Among these, one of the most important factors perceived as risk and can cause negative attitudes is health concerns. When potential tourists think that the risk is high, they prefer not to make a reservation, cancel, or go to place risk-free places (Sasso, 2005; Mansfeld, 2006). For example, many travelers avoided visiting Africa due to a negative attitude and perception of risk due to potential health-related risks (e.g. HIV) (Lepp and Gibson, 2003). Law (2006) researched three risk factors (terror attacks, infectious diseases and natural disasters) that affected the decision-making of international travelers. Maser and Weiermair (1998) revealed that hygiene and disease are important risk factors in travel-related risks. It has also been recommended that tourists do not visit developing countries with a high disease risk (Kozak et al., 2007). These recommendations highlight the risk perceptions of potential tourists. These risk perceptions affect tourism as was seen as the SARS virus had a negative impact on tourism and hospitality with many reservations being canceled (Rittichainuwat and Chakraborty, 2009).

Studies also indicate that when faced with tourist destinations that are equally attractive, tourists tend to visit the destination, where there is the least negative attitude or the least perceived risk (McLellan and Foushee, 1983; Erdem, 1998). This shows how important negative attitudes and risk perception are in the behavior of tourists. The negative attitude and perceived risk caused by COVID-19 is thereby thought to have an impact on tourist behavior. Although the attitudes of tourists toward a destination and travel have traditionally been resistant to change (Morrison, 2013), it is likely that their attitudes will change after the pandemic due to strong sociological and psychological changes. The main starting point and question of the research are also possible changes. In light of the literature, it is understood that the perception of risk can have a negative effect on travel intention. For example, Han (2005) found that the perceived risk and the intention to travel had a negative relationship.

H4.

Perceived risk toward COVID-19 has a statistically significant relationship with travel intention after the pandemic.

H5.

Perceived risk toward COVID-19 has a statistically significant relationship with destination visit intention after the pandemic.

H6.

Travel intention has a statistically significant relationship with destination visit intention.

H7.

Perceived risk toward COVID-19 is likely to mediate the effect of negative problem orientation toward COVID-19 on travel intention after the pandemic.

### Travel intention

Intention is one of the most important descriptors of behavior (Hsu and Crotts, 2006) and can cause real behavior (Jang et al., 2009). Behavioral intent can be defined as behavior that existed before an action depending on social and situational factors (Moutinho, 1987). In addition, many researchers think that attitude is an important factor for behavioral intentions (Cheng et al., 2006; Hsu et al., 2010). In the context of tourism, travel intention has been defined as the possibility of traveling to any destination within any time (Baker and Crompton, 2000).

Unlike many other services, it is not possible for tourism and travel services to be experienced before they are purchased. Therefore, expenses are paid prior to travel. Thus, travel decisions are sensitive to risk and uncertainty (Promsivapallop and Kannaovakun, 2017). Apart from financial, social and terrorism risks, health risks have also been examined and found to significantly affect travel decisions (Rittichainuwat and Chakraborty, 2009; Schiffman et al., 2010; Lee et al., 2012; Haque and Haque, 2018). Additionally, travel restrictions imposed as a result of the pandemic will also have a negative impact on travel intentions and experiences (Hung and Petrick, 2010) and was supported by Lai et al. (2013). Based on this knowledge, it can be said that the barriers and risks to travel have a very significant impact on attitudes and travel intentions. In addition, these risk factors are among the most important descriptors of tourist behavior.

H8.

Perceived risk toward COVID-19 is likely to mediate the effect of negative problem orientation toward COVID-19 on destination visit intention after the pandemic.

H9.

Travel intention mediates the effect of negative problem orientation toward COVID-19 on destination visit intention after the pandemic.

### Destination visit intention

The intention to visit is defined as the willingness to visit a destination (Chen et al., 2014) and safety and security are extremely important concerns when choosing a destination (Poon and Adams, 2000; Roodurmun and Juwaheer, 2010). Tourists who perceive fear towards the any destination image may negatively affect their intention to visit this destination (Hem et al., 2002). Yoon and Uysal (2005) referred to these as push factors. Many studies have found that perceived risk can impact on destination visit intention (Khan et al., 2017; Artuger, 2015). While risk perception is multidimensional, overall risk factors perceived by tourists have an impact on their intention to visit destinations (Şengel et al., 2022).

H10.

Perceived risk and travel intention mediate the effect of negative problem orientation toward COVID-19 on destination visit intention.

H11.

Travel intention mediates the effect of perceived risk toward COVID-19 on destination visit intention after the pandemic.

## Questionnaire, sampling and data collection

The questionnaire used in the research consists of four sections and 35 statements, excluding demographic questions. Each of the scales will allow the testing of hypotheses developed as a result of the literature review. The NPO Scale of Clarke et al. (2017) was used to test NPO. To test the perceived risk, the Perceived Risk Scale used by Küpeli and Özer (2020), with dimensions of psychological, social, financial and general risk was applied. The scales used by Chin et al. (2015) and Chung et al. (2015) were used to test the travel intention and destination visit intention, respectively. The NPOs and perceived risks associated with post pandemic travel intention and destination visit intention were sought from people living in Turkey. Turkey is the destination of an important field of research for the solution of research question. Because with the first COVID-19 case, curfews and travel restrictions were imposed (Republic of Turkey Health Ministry, 2021). Research on the effects of COVID-19 in the country has begun to be published. It has been revealed that the hospitality industry in the country has been adversely affected with the onset of the pandemic (Şengel et al., 2020a; Eryılmaz, 2020). The perceptions of the people of the country regarding the epidemic were also tested (Doğan and Düzel, 2020; Ekiz et al., 2020). It has been revealed that different concerns about COVID-19 in the country negatively affect people's traveling behavior (Şengel et al., 2020c; Baykal, 2020). In addition, due to less human mobility, there is a significant increase in the demand for nature-based tourism types in the country in 2020 (Aydın and Doğan, 2020; Şengel et al., 2020b).

The research population consisted of people over the age of 20 and lived in Turkey. In this context, the 2019 census suggested a total population of 57,342,061 people over the age of 20 (Total Population-Under-20 population/82,886,000–25,543,939) which constitutes the universe of this study (TUIK-Turkish Statistical Institute, 2020). Within the scope of the research, no sample calculations have been made. In addition, within the context of the minimum number of samples required for statistical program, it has been targeted to reach 10 times the total number of expressions (35 × 10 = 350). The data were collected by convenience sampling method and were collected online due to social distancing rules associated with COVID-19.

Data were collected after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. Because, over time, the NPO and perceived risks of people may decrease. The data collection process was completed in four months between October 12, 2020–February 12, 2021. This date range was preferred because the first case was identified on 11 March 2020 and the pandemic peaked toward the end of 2020. The prepared questionnaire was shared on authors' e-mail and social media platforms and participants were asked to fill in the questionnaire. The survey link was shared with groups of tourists and travelers. From this process, a total of 531 questionnaires were obtained and all of the questionnaires were used in the analysis. In social sciences, a sample size of 384 and above is considered sufficient for an unlimited number of research universes (Kotrlik and Higgins, 2001). For this reason, the data collection process was completed, considering that 531 participants would represent the research universe. Being a voluntary survey prevented the collection of incomplete and erroneous surveys. Details of the method of the study are presented in Table 1.

## Data analysis

Two different statistical programs were used in the analysis of the data. The first program was used to determine the distribution of the demographic characteristics of the research sample given its capacity to present descriptive statistics and frequencies systematically. The second program was used to test the measurement and structure models as it provides flexibility for the analysis of reflective prediction models, facilitates the determination of predictions, needs no normality requirement and makes appropriate predictions within small samples (Loureiro and González, 2008; Henseler et al., 2009; Hair et al., 2012; Di-Clemente et al., 2019).

### Descriptive statistics

Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics of the participants who participated in the study. There was a balanced distribution in terms of gender, marital status and income. In the age groups, those below the age of 46 were more common (about 82%). In addition, approximately 60% of the participants are people who travel with their families or prefer to do so.

The most important information about the participants in this study is the information about their travel abroad, with 46.1% of the participants never having traveled abroad. However, 72.5% state that they were willing to participate in touristic activities abroad. This finding is opposite to what was expected given there is an expectation that international travel movements will decrease due to the pandemic.

### Measurement model

Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the measurement model. While conducting analysis on the measurement model, a total of five statements were disabled, one from the NPO scale, three from the perceived risk scale and one from the destination visit intent. This process was carried out by considering statistical rules. Expressions with a factor load below 0.50 and t-value below 1.96 were disabled in the model (Doğan, 2019). Table 3 presents the confirmatory factor analysis (Kim and Hall, 2019). For factor loads, a value of 0.50 was taken as reference and expressions above 0.50 were included in the analysis (Chen and Tsai, 2007). t-values with ranging from 8.463 to 64.201 and were seen to be greater than the reference value of 1.96 (Doğan, 2019). The value of VIF (variance inflation factors) for each expression was less than 10. Although statistical program accepts VIF values lesser than 3 as reference, it is suggested that values less than 5 and 10 are acceptable (Sevinç, 2013). The fact that VIF values for each expression were less than 10 also has an effect on the scope of the research. Table 3 presents the arithmetic mean and standard deviation findings for each dimension (structure) that constitutes the quadruple structure in the study.

Table 4 presents the reliability, validity and correlation values. The Cronbach's (α) composite reliability and Rho-A are above 0.70, which is the minimum value required within social science research for each structure (size) (Campbell and Fiske, 1959; Carmines and Zeller, 1979; Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). When these values are taken into account, it can be said that the analysis achieved the reliability requirement.

The AVE coefficient was above 0.50, which is accepted as a reference in the social sciences for each structure (dimension) (Hair et al., 2010). In addition, the square roots of the AVE values were larger than the correlation value for each dimension. These assessments demonstrate convergent validity was achieved (Fornell and Larcker, 1981). In the Fornell and Larcker criterion evaluation, all of the values in the rows and columns are lower than the values written in italic and in the Heterotrait-Monotrait ratio (HTMT) evaluation, the values between 0 and 1 indicate that separation validity was achieved. In statistical terms, this value is expected to be less than 0.90 (Hair et al., 2017).

### Structural model

The suitability of the structural model and the acceptance status of the hypothesis tests are presented in Table 5. Considering the model fit values, it can be said that the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) value and Normed Fit Index (NFI) are at an acceptable level as the SRMR (RMSEA) value is expected to be less than 0.08 and NFI value will be greater than 0.80 (Karagöz, 2017). Especially for statistical program, a SRMR value can be accepted under 0.10 (Domínguez-Quintero et al., 2020).

When Table 5 is examined, five of the six hypotheses where direct effects were tested were supported, while one was not. NPO affects perceived risk related to COVID-19 in the 99% confidence interval, while it does not affect travel intention and destination visit intention after COVID-19. Therefore, while H1 was supported, H2 and H3 were not supported. The perceived risk associated with COVID-19 affects the travel intention after COVID-19 in the 99% confidence interval and the intention to visit the destination in the 95% confidence interval. Similarly, post-COVID-19 travel intention affects destination visit intention in the range of 99%. In the light of this information, H4, H5 and H6 hypotheses are supported.

In the research, five hypotheses about intermediary variables measuring indirect effects were developed. Through these hypotheses, the effects of intermediary variables in the model were tested as a product of the coefficients of each of the causal relationships in the model (Hayes et al., 2011). Indirect effects of independent variables on dependent variables were tested using 5,000 bootstrap samples (Chin et al., 2013). According to Table 5, NPO toward COVID-19 affects post-COVID-19 travel intention and post-COVID-19 destination visit intention with a perceived risk mediator variable at 99% and 95% confidence intervals. Therefore, H7 and H8 were supported. H9 was not supported as the NPO toward COVID-19 does not affect the destinations visit intention through the travel intention mediator. According to the results, a NPO toward COVID-19 affects destination visit intention at 99% confidence level through perceived risk and travel intention mediators. Finally, the perceived risk to COVID-19 affects destination visit intention at 99% confidence level through the travel intention mediator. Therefore, H10 and H11 were also supported (see Table 6).

In Figure 2, there are relations between the variables of the research according to the Partial least square (PLS) result. In the model, the levels explaining the variance of dependent variables by independent variables were included. The R2 value for destination visit intention after COVID-19 was 0.393. There was also 39.3% of destination visit intention variance after COVID-19, the dependent variable in this model and is explained by the independent variables (López-Bonilla and López-Bonilla, 2014; Nikbin and Hyun, 2017). Chin (1998) states that this explanatoriness is moderate.

### Discussion and conclusions

A risk associated with each of the crises arising from economic, health, terrorism, political and natural disasters affects the intention to travel and general trips or tourist trips are often canceled. Specific to this research, the perceived risk toward the pandemic affects the travel intention negatively, while the destination visit intention remains positive. This bears some resemblance to a study by Floyd et al.'s (2004) after the September 11 terrorist attack and Qi et al. (2009).

The NPO toward the pandemic affects the travel intention and the destination visit intention after the pandemic with mediating variables. The NPO about the epidemic negatively affects the travel intention after the epidemic through the perceived risk mediator. The mediating effect of perceived risk on the travel intention was also identified in studies by Tavitiyaman and Qu (2013) and Maritz et al. (2013). Likewise, the NPO toward the pandemic negatively affects the destination visit intention with the variable travel intention mediator. This result is similar to the results of the study of Lehto et al. (2008) on the tsunami crises. In parallel, the NPO toward the pandemic affects the destination visit intention negatively through the perceived risk and travel intention mediators.

According to the other striking result of the study, the NPO positively affects destination visit intention with the perceived risk mediator. In addition, perceived risk positively affects the destination visit intention with the travel intention mediator. Chew and Jahari (2014) determined the effect of perceived risk on destination visit intent through the mediation effect of different variables in the context of intention to revisit. In this study, it was found that the negative effect turned into a positive effect through the mediator. This result is similar to the results of this study and Choi et al. (2013) also achieved similar results.

### Theoretical implications

In the research, the NPO toward the COVID-19 pandemic does not have a direct effect on travel intention or destination visit intention. Strong relationships were identified between the attitude developed against any negative situation (Anable, 2005; Staats et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2017; Ru et al., 2018) and participation in travel and tourism activities (Lam and Hsu, 2004; Hsu et al., 2010; Sharifpour et al., 2014). These relationships have also been supported by current study. There is a positive and linear relationship between the NPO of the COVID-19 pandemic and its perceived risk (Weber and Hsee, 1998; Eiser et al., 2002) and travel and destination visit intention. As the NPO of the epidemic increases, the perceived risk increases. Likewise, as the travel intention after the pandemic increases, destination visit intention increases. Studies on travel destinations visit intention are generally examined in the context of behavioral theories such as theory tourist behavior (Lam and Hsu, 2004; Zarrad and Debabi, 2015) and theory of planned behavior (Hsu et al., 2010; Damayanti et al., 2017). In this study, travel intention and destination visit intention were taken separately. Because every travel intention of people who cannot travel due to the epidemic may not be for a touristic purpose. In this context, it is stated in the literature that the factors affecting the destination visit intention are factors such as safety, image, quality and brand (Horng et al., 2012; Chi et al., 2013; Abubakar, 2016; Tan and Wu, 2016). Contrary to this, Ferns and Walls (2012) also examined the effect of travel on the destination visit intention with the help of mediating variables.

Crises that may threaten the safety of people can affect their intention and behavior to travel and participate in tourist activities. These crises set off a NPO and affect an individuals' perception of risk and therefore their opinions about travel and visit. There are many studies in the literature that reveal the fiction of these relationships (Sönmez and Graefe, 1998a, b; Reisinger and Mavondo, 2005; Huang and Hsu, 2009; Quintal et al., 2010; Alvarez and Campo, 2014; Park et al., 2017). The results of this study reveal the interaction between the concepts expressed here in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the results of the research, an increase in NPOs related to the pandemic increases the perceived risk related to the pandemic. Similarly, an increase in travel intention after the pandemic increases the destination visit intention. The NPO toward the pandemic negatively affects the travel intention through the perceived risk mediator. In addition, it negatively affects the destination visit intention through the travel intention mediator.

As people's general NPOs and risk perceptions about COVID-19 increase, their travel intention and destination visit intention decreases (Larsson and Gustavsson, 2020). When touristic travels and destination visits are reduced, the supply elements in the destination are adversely affected. The hospitality industry is a critical supply element. With the restrictions on incoming travel, accommodation businesses in most countries have ceased operation (Youssef et al., 2020; Kumar, 2020) or started to provide services to health workers.

### Managerial implications

This study has revealed the effects of pandemic diseases, a type of crisis that seriously affects the tourism industry, on tourists' capacity to travel and on travel profits. The COVID-19 pandemic examined within the scope of this research is one of the most globally virulent pandemics in terms of its rate of contagion. Another characteristic of this outbreak is that the increased travel movements of our modern society has increased the rate of the pandemic’s transmission. The information technologies available during this outbreak means information about the pandemic is collected and presented globally on a daily basis. In light of this increased exposure through news and precaution measures, it is expected that people are likely to develop a NPO toward the outbreak and have a high-risk perception. It is also expected that the pandemic will affect people's intent to travel and their destination visit intentions.

As the effects of the pandemic have decreased in some countries, efforts to revitalize tourism movements have increased. In this context, the companies in the hospitality industry should take precautions in relation to hygiene, social distancing, mask use and information messages. These are important and can be used as a marketing strategy to help businesses survive the crisis caused by COVID-19 (Pappas, 2015; Karlsson and Tavassoli, 2016). The fact that businesses inform tourists quickly through the Internet may allow them to obtain a competitive advantage in this crisis environment (Scaglione et al., 2009; Hjalager, 2010; Nicolau and Santa-María, 2013; Campo et al., 2014; Consiglio et al., 2018). The hospitality industry acted similarly after the SARS outbreak (Jayawardena et al., 2008; Larsson and Gustavsson, 2020). The measures to be implemented by the hospitality industry can increase the travel intention and destination visit intention after the pandemic by positively affecting the perceived risk and NPO related to COVID-19.

The pandemic affected tourists' travel intention and their destination visit intention, while changing tourists' priorities on the other hand. Much of the discussion between business owners, senior executives and professionals in the hospitality industry focuses on the shift toward short-term strategic adaptation relative to the impact of COVID-19 on touristic activities. However, it can be said that the pandemic contributed to the sustainable renewal of the tourism and hospitality industry (Martin, 2020). Li et al. (2021) stated that rural-based tourism activities could come to the fore within this scope. The current crisis environment seems to have changed industry and tourist behavior respectively (Şengel et al., 2020c). These mutual behaviors may increase travel for touristic purposes, too.

### Limitations and direction for future studies

There are two major limitations of the study. The first is that surveys could not be collected face to face due to the social distancing rules in the outbreak. Another important limitation of the study is that the data collection was limited to Turkey. Since COVID-19 is a global pandemic, further contributions from additional international studies would enhance our understanding of the subject. However, the social, cultural, geographical, economic and demographic characteristics of countries can create differing reactions to the outbreak. Therefore, the study was limited to Turkey.

Suggestions for future research have been made in two categories, in terms of the subject and the method. In the future, researchers may focus on topics such as tourist psychology, conditions for the revival of international travel movements, solutions for restructuring the tourism industry, cash flow and borrowing levels for tourism businesses, and anxiety and expectations of tourism workers. Doing studies with appropriate research methods according to the research topic may result in more beneficial results. In particular, quantitative research methods (surveys) can be carried out on subjects such as tourist psychology and employee anxiety and expectations from the collection of data from international samples, and qualitative research methods such as participatory observation, interview or focus group interview can also be carried out in smaller samples. In matters such as revitalization of international travel movements, restructuring the tourism industry, and cash flow and borrowing levels of tourism enterprises, studies can be conducted using analysis methods based on secondary data and computer aided simulation methods.

## Figures

### Figure 1

Structural model within the scope of the research

### Figure 2

Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) results

## Table 1

Details of the field research

 General population/study population People who live in turkey and have destination visit intention The geographical scope of the research National Data collection method Online survey Sampling frame Anyone who volunteers to complete the questionnaire prepared in the online form (people over the age of 20 who intend to visit a tourist destination) Population size According to the 2019 census, people aged 20 and over (57.342.061) Sampling technique Probabilistic sampling-convenience sampling method Data collection period October 12, 2020–February 12, 2021 Collected questionnaires 531 Valid questionnaires 531

## Table 2

Descriptive statistics of the participants

VariablesNumber%VariablesNumber%
Gender?Marital status?
Female28553.7Married28152.9
Male24646.3Single25047.1
Age groups?Income?
30 and below22041.4500 $a and below18635.0 31–4521540.5501–1,000$14827.9
46 and above9618.11,001 \$ and above19737.1
Have you traveled abroad for touristic purposes?Who do you travel with?
Yes28653.9Alone9217.3
No24546.1Family31659.5
After the pandemic, do you intend to go abroad for touristic purposes?Fiends12323.2
Yes38572.5
No14627.5

Note(s): aUSD dollars

## Table 3

Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement model

Negative problem orientation (related to COVID-19)
I often doubt whether I can solve problems2.1541.1722.32614.0650.739
It often seems like I cannot beat my problems2.1091.1303.26917.0680.804
I think my problems will not go away, even if I can think of ways to solve them2.5461.1941.7568.4630.640
I often feel that my problems cannot be solved1.9851.1462.56214.2740.754
When I think about all the ways to solve a problem, I still wonder if my answer will work2.4441.1922.25712.8120.750
I see problems as a danger2.6051.2952.21814.9200.787
I think my problems as bigger than they really are2.4351.2401.76812.2550.700
When I have a problem, the first think I do is think that I do not have the ability to solve it3.0061.1801.70810.4020.657
I think that problems will get in the way of things I need to do3.0321.2822.11914.4580.758
I see problems as a threat to my well-being3.7181.3461.50810.0180.570
Before I try to solve a problem, I think that it is hard to solve problems2.7801.2411.63113.9500.670
Perceived risk (related to COVID-19)
The thought of purchasing a touristic product made me feel psychologically uncomfortable3.2031.2765.58417.3200.818
The thought of purchasing a touristic product gave me a feeling of unwanted anxiety3.1191.2387.08816.8750.816
The thought of purchasing a touristic product caused me to experience unnecessary tension3.0231.2684.50116.9460.813
Overall, caused me to be concerned with experiencing some kind of losses3.1191.2222.16414.0890.729
All things considered I think I made a mistake by buying touristic product2.8251.2692.56616.0610.801
When all is said and done I really felt that it posed problems for me that I just did not need2.9591.2271.81413.1650.716
Buying touristic product caused me to be thought of as being foolish by some people whose opinion I value2.1861.1701.6978.5910.591
I wasted my money by purchasing touristic products2.2671.2262.88611.2380.685
Financial investment I made for touristic product was not wise2.5271.2893.31011.7130.692
I did not get my money's worth from products provided by the tourism enterprises2.4971.1952.9199.5410.649
I worried that buying touristic products would involve unexpected extra expenses2.8141.2482.20612.6760.661
Travel intention (after COVID-19)
I am willing to travel and tour after the pandemic2.6991.4944.55823.3090.868
I am committed to travel and tour after the pandemic2.6141.4725.76830.6130.904
I am keen with the vacation after the pandemic3.3581.5071.96619.2490.779
There is high possibility that I would travel and tour after the pandemic2.7951.5023.66029.9040.908
Travel motivations are higher when people are young3.0531.4912.26920.9780.825
Destination visit intention (after COVID-19)
I will visit a destination again after the pandemic2.7651.4836.87150.8610.956
I will continue to visit the any destination in the future after the pandemic2.8141.5078.84164.2010.973
I intend to visit any destination frequently after the pandemic2.7331.4453.50442.0100.922

## Table 4

Reliability, validity and correlation

VariablesFornell–Larcker criterionHeterotrait-Monotrait ratio
12341234
Negative problem orientation (1)0.729
Perceived risk (2)0.0110.950 0.051
Travel intention (3)0.5520.0590.715 0.5960.066
Destination visit intention (4)−0.1130.6220.0130.8580.1220.6670.053
Cronbach's alpha0.9110.9180.9250.531
Reliability coefficient (Rho_A)0.9460.9490.9660.903
Composite reliability0.9030.9060.9190.511
AVE0.9100.9140.9330.737

## Table 5

Path coefficients and impact dimensions

HypothesisPath coefficientst-statp-valueSupported/SignificantSRMRNFI
Direct effects0.0720.747
H1: NPO → PR0.55215.6120.000**Yes
H2: NPO → TI0.1081.9250.054No
H3: NPO → DVI0.0070.1660.868No
H4: PR → TI−0.1733.0360.002**Yes
H5: PR → DVI0.0792.0170.044*Yes
H6: TI → DVI0.63019.6300.000**Yes
Mediator effects
H7: NPO → PR → TI−0.0953.0090.003**Yes
H8: NPO → PR → DVI0.0441.9910.048*Yes
H9: NPO → TI → DVI−0.1091.9110.056No
H10: NPO → PR → TI → DVI−0.0602.9910.003**Yes
H11: PR → TI → DVI0.0683.0140.003**Yes

Note(s): Significant at *p < 0.05 level,

Significant at **p < 0.01 level,

t > 1.96,

NPO: Negative problem orientation, PR: Perceived risk, TI: Travel intention and DVI: Destination visit intention

## Table 6

PLS predict analysis

Dependent variablesIndependent variablesR2Q2VIF
Negative problem orientationPerceived risk0.3050.1481.000
Travel intention0.0210.0141.438
Destination visit intention0.3930.3331.450

Note(s): 5,000 bootstrapping procedure used

## References

Abubakar, M.A. (2016), “Does eWOM influence destination trust and travel intention: a medical tourism perspective”, Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 598-611.

Ahmadi, M., Sharifi, A., Dorosti, S., Ghoushchi, S.J. and Ghanbari, N. (2020), “Investigation of effective climatology parameters on COVID-19 outbreak in Iran”, Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 729, pp. 1-7.

Ajzen, I. (1991), “The theory of planned behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 179-211.

Alvarez, M.D. and Campo, S. (2014), “The influence of political conflicts on country image and intention to visit: a study of Israel's image”, Tourism Management, Vol. 40, pp. 70-78.

Anable, J. (2005), “‘Complacent car addicts’ or ‘aspiring environmentalists’? Identifying travel behaviour segments using attitude theory”, Transport Policy, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 65-78.

Anderson, B.A. (2006), “Crisis management in the Australian tourism industry: preparedness, personnel and postscript”, Tourism Management, Vol. 27 No. 6, pp. 1290-1297.

Artuger, S. (2015), “The effect of risk perceptions on tourists' revisit intentions. European”, Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 36-44.

Aydın, B. and Doğan, M. (2020), “Yeni Koronavirüs (COVID-19) pandemisinin Turistik Tüketici Davranışları ve Türkiye Turizmi Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Değerlendirilmesi”, Pazarlama Teorisi ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 93-115.

Baker, D.A. and Crompton, J.L. (2000), “Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 27 No. 3, pp. 785-804.

Baykal, E. (2020), “COVID-19 Bağlamında psikolojik Dayanıklılık, Kaygı Ve Yaşam Doyum İlişkisi”, International Journal of Social and Economic Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 68-80.

Beirman, D. (2003), “United States: September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. The impact on American and global tourism”, in Beirman, D. (Ed.), Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach, CABI Publishing, Oxon, pp. 43-68.

Borkovec, T.D. (1985), “Worry: a potentially valuable concept”, Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 481-482, doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(85)90178-0.

Brunt, T., Mawby, R. and Hambly, Z. (2000), “Tourist victimisation and the fear of crime on holiday”, Tourism Management, Vol. 21, pp. 417-424.

Bushell, R. (2001), “Health and tourism: a conceptual shift”, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 26 No. 3, pp. 79-83.

Campbell, D.T. and Fiske, D.W. (1959), “Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2, pp. 81-105.

Campo, S., Díaz, A.M. and Yagüe, M.J. (2014), “Hotel innovation and performance in times of crisis”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 26 No. 8, pp. 1292-1311.

Carmines, E.G. and Zeller, R.A. (1979), Reliability and Validity Assessment, Sage Publications, London.

Chen, M.H. (2011), “The response of hotel performance to international tourism development and crisis events”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 200-212.

Chen, C.F. and Tsai, D. (2007), “How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?”, Tourism Management, Vol. 28 No. 4, pp. 1115-1122.

Chen, M.H., Jang, S.S. and Kim, W.G. (2007), “The impact of the SARS outbreak on Taiwanese hotel stock performance: an event-study approach”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 200-212.

Chen, Y., Shang, R. and Li, M. (2014), “The effects of perceived relevance of travel blogs' content on the behavioral intention to visit a tourist destination”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 787-799.

Cheng, S., Lam, T. and Hsu, C.H. (2006), “Negative word-of-mouth communication intention: an application of the theory of planned behavior”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 95-116.

Chew, E.Y.T. and Jahari, S.A. (2014), “Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks and revisit intention: a case of post-disaster Japan”, Tourism Management, Vol. 40, pp. 382-393.

Chi, C.G.Q., Chua, B.L., Othman, M. and Karim, S.A. (2013), “Investigating the structural relationships between food image, food satisfaction, culinary quality, and behavioral intentions: the case of Malaysia”, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 99-120.

Chin, W.W. (1998), “The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling”, in Marcoulides, G.A. (Ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research, Lawrence Elbaum Associates Publisher, London, pp. 295-336.

Chin, W.W., Kim, Y.J. and Lee, G. (2013), “Testing the differential impact of structural paths in PLS analysis: a bootstrapping approach”, in New Perspectives in Partial Least Squares and Related Methods, Springer, New York, NY.

Chin, L.C., Leng, L.H., Yuan, N.S. and Xiong, P.Y. (2015), Determinants of Travel Intention Among Foreign Student in Malaysia-perspective from Push-Pull Motivations (Doctoral Dissertation), UTAR.

Choi, J., Lee, A. and Ok, C. (2013), “The effects of consumers' perceived risk and benefit on attitude and behavioral intention: a study of street food”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 222-237.

Chung, N., Han, H. and Joun, Y. (2015), “Tourists' intention to visit a destination: the role of augmented reality (AR) application for a heritage site”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 50, pp. 588-599.

Clarke, J.B., Ford, M., Heary, S., Rodgers, J. and Freeston, M.H. (2017), “The relationship between negative problem orientation and worry: a meta-analytic review”, Psychopathology Review, Vol. 4 No. 3, pp. 319-340.

Clements, M.A. and Georgiou, A. (1998), “The impact of political instability on a fragile tourism product”, Tourism Management, Vol. 19, pp. 283-288.

Clift, S. (2000), “Tourism and health: current issues and future concerns”, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 55-61.

Consiglio, I., De Angelis, M. and Costabile, M. (2018), “The effect of social density on word of mouth”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 45 No. 3, pp. 511-528.

Cossens, J. and Gin, S. (1994), “Tourism and AIDS: the perceived risk of HIV infection and destination choice”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 3, pp. 1-20.

Damayanti, A., Wibowo, L.A. and Humaira, A. (2017), “Analyzing the effect of electronic word of mouth towards future behavioral intention of tourists”, Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 843-852.

Davey, G.C., Hampton, J., Farrell, J. and Davidson, S. (1992), “Some characteristics of worrying: Evidence for worrying and anxiety as separate constructs”, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 133-147, doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(92)90036-O.

Di-Clemente, E., Hernandez-Mogollon, J.M. and Campon-Cerro, A.M. (2019), “Tourists' involvement and memorable food-based experiences as new determinants of behavioural intentions towards typical products”, Current Issues in Tourism, pp. 1-14.

Doğan, D. (2019), SmartPLS Ile Veri Analizi [Data Analysis with SmartPLS], 1st ed., Zet Press, Ankara.

Doğan, M.M. and Düzel, B. (2020), “Covid-19 Özelinde Korku-Kaygı Düzeyleri”, Electronic Turkish Studies, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 739-752.

Domínguez-Quintero, A.M., González-Rodríguez, M.R. and Paddison, B. (2020), “The mediating role of experience quality on authenticity and satisfaction in the context of cultural-heritage tourism”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 248-260, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2018.1502261.

Dugas, M.J., Freeston, M.H. and Ladouceur, R. (1997), “Intolerance of uncertainty and problem orientation in worry”, Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 21 No. 6, pp. 593-606.

D'Zurilla, T.J. and Nezu, A.M. (1990), “Development and preliminary evaluation of the problem solving inventory”, Psychological Assessment, Vol. 2, pp. 156-163, doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.2.2.156.

Eiser, J.R., Miles, S. and Frewer, L.J. (2002), “Trust, perceived risk, and attitudes toward food technologies 1”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 32 No. 11, pp. 2423-2433.

Ekiz, T., Ilıman, E. and Dönmez, E. (2020), “Bireylerin Sağlık Anksiyetesi Düzeyleri İle COVID-19 Salgını Kontrol Algısının Karşılaştırılması”, Uluslararası Sağlık Yönetimi ve Stratejileri Araştırma Dergisi, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 139-154.

Erdem, T. (1998), “An empirical analysis of umbrella branding”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 339-351.

Eryılmaz, B. (2020), “Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren otel zincirlerinin yeni tip koronavirüs (Covid-19) bilgilendirmeleri”, Turizm Akademik Dergisi, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 15-27.

Ferns, B.H. and Walls, A. (2012), “Enduring travel involvement, destination brand equity, and travelers' visit intentions: a structural model analysis”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, Vol. 1 Nos 1-2, pp. 27-35.

Floyd, M.F., Gibson, H., Pennington-Gray, L. and Thapa, B. (2004), “The effect of risk perceptions on intentions to travel in the aftermath of September 11, 2001”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 15 Nos 2-3, pp. 19-38.

Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.F. (1981), “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 39-50.

Fraser, A., Pelling, M., Scolobig, A. and Mavrogenis, S. (2020), “Relating root causes to local risk conditions: a comparative study of the institutional pathways to small-scale disasters in three urban flood contexts”, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 63, p. 102102.

Fuchs, G. and Reichel, A. (2004), “Cultural differences in tourist destination risk perception: an exploratory study”, Tourism (Zagreb), Vol. 52 No. 1, pp. 21-37.

Gartner, W.C. and Shen, J. (1992), “The impact of Tiananmen Square on China's tourism image”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 30, pp. 47-52.

George, R. (2010), Visitor Perceptions of Crime-Safety and Attitudes towards Risk: The Case of Table Mountain National Park, Tourism Management, Cape Town, Vol. 31, pp. 806-815.

Glaesser, D. (2003), Crises' Spheres of Activity. Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010), Multivariate Data Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Hair, J.F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. and Mena, J.A. (2012), “An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 40 No. 3, pp. 414-433.

Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2017), A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Hall, C.M. (2010), “Crisis events in tourism: subjects of crisis in tourism”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 401-417.

Han, J.Y. (2005), The Relationships of Perceived Risk to Personal Factors, Knowledge of Destination, and Travel Purchase Decisions in International Leisure Travel, Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech.

Haque, H.T. and Haque, O.M. (2018), “The swine flu and its impacts on tourism in Brunei”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Vol. 36, pp. 92-101.

Hayes, A.F., Preacher, K.J. and Myers, T.A. (2011), “Mediation and the estimation of indirect effects in political communication research”, Sourcebook for Political Communication Research: Methods, Measures, and Analytical Techniques, Vol. 23, pp. 434-465.

He, R., Lu, Z., Zhang, L., Fan, T., Xiong, R., Shen, X., Feng, H., Meng, H., Lin, W., Jiang, W. and Geng, Q. (2020), “The clinical course and its correlated immune status in COVID-19 pneumonia”, Journal of Clinical Virology, p. 104361.

Hem, L.E., Iversen, N.M. and Nysveen, H. (2002), “Effects of ad photos portraying risky vacation situations on intention to visit a tourist destination: moderating effects of age, gender, and nationality”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 1-26.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sinkovics, R.R. (2009), “The use of partial least squares path modelling in international marketing”, Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 277-320.

Hjalager, A.M. (2010), “A review of innovation research in tourism”, Tourism Management, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 1-12.

Hoque, A., Shikha, F.A., Hasanat, M.W., Arif, I. and Hamid, A.B.A. (2020), “The effect of coronavirus (COVID-19) in the tourism industry in China”, Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 52-58.

Horng, J.S., Liu, C.H., Chou, H.Y. and Tsai, C.Y. (2012), “Understanding the impact of culinary brand equity and destination familiarity on travel intentions”, Tourism Management, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 815-824.

Hsu, C. and Crotts, J.C. (2006), “Segmenting mainland Chinese residents based on experience, intention and desire to visit Hong Kong”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 279-287.

Hsu, C.H., Cai, L.A. and Li, M. (2010), “Expectation, motivation, and attitude: a tourist behavioral model”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 49 No. 3, pp. 282-296.

Huang, S. and Hsu, C.H. (2009), “Effects of travel motivation, past experience, perceived constraint, and attitude on revisit intention”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 29-44.

Hung, K. and Petrick, J.F. (2010), “Developing a measurement scale for constraints to cruising”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 206-228.

Inchausti-Sintes, F. (2015), “Tourism: economic growth, employment and Dutch disease”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 54, pp. 172-189.

Ioannides, D. and Apostolopoulos, Y. (1999), “Political instability, war, and tourism in Cyprus: effects, management, and prospects for recovery”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 51-56.

Ivanov, S., Gavrilina, M., Webster, C. and Ralko, V. (2017), “Impacts of political instability on the tourism industry in Ukrain”, Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 100-127.

Jalilvand, M.R. and Samiei, N. (2012), “The impact of electronic word of mouth on a tourism destination choice: testing the theory of planned behavior (TBP)”, Internet Research, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 591-612.

Jalilvand, M.R., Samiei, N., Dini, B. and Yaghoubi, P. (2012), “Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: an integrated approach”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, Vol. 1 Nos 1-2, pp. 134-143.

Jang, S., Bai, B., Hu, C. and Wu, C.M.E. (2009), “Affect, travel motivation, and travel intention: a senior market”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp. 51-73.

Jayawardena, C., Tew, P.J., Lu, Z., Tolomiczenko, G. and Gellatly, J. (2008), “SARS: lessons in strategic planning for hoteliers and destination marketers”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 332-346.

Karagöz, Y. (2017), SPSS ve AMOS Uygulamalı Nitel-Nicel Karma Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri [Qualitative-Quantitative Mixed Scientific Research Methods with SPSS and AMOS Applied], 1st ed., Nobel Publishing, Ankara.

Karlsson, C. and Tavassoli, S. (2016), “Innovation strategies of firms: what strategies and why?”, The Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 41 No. 6, pp. 1483-1506.

Kavoor, A.R., Chakravarthy, K. and John, T. (2020), “Remote consultations in the era of COVID-19 pandemic: preliminary experience in a regional Australian public acute mental health care setting”, Asian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 51, p. 102074-102074.

Khan, J.M., Chelliah, S. and Ahmed, S. (2017), “Factors influencing destination image and visit intention among young women travellers: role of travel motivation, perceived risks, and travel constraints”, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 22 No. 11, pp. 1139-1155, doi: 10.1080/10941665.2017.1374985.

Kim, M.L. and Hall, C.M. (2019), “Investment crowdfunding in the visitor economy: the roles of venture quality, uncertainty, and funding amount”, Current Issues in Tourism, pp. 1-22, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2019.1656178.

Koerner, N. and Dugas, M.J. (2006), “A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder: the role of intolerance of uncertainty”, in Davey, G.C.L. and Wells, A. (Eds), Worry and its Psychological Disorders: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment, John Wiley, West Sussex, pp. 201-216.

Kotrlik, J.W.K.J.W. and Higgins, C.C.H.C.C. (2001), “Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research appropriate sample size in survey research”, Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, Vol. 19 No. 1, p. 43.

Kozak, M., Crotts, J.C. and Law, R. (2007), “The impact of the perception of risk on international travelers”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 233-242.

Koç, E., Taşkın, Ç. and Boz, H. (2019), “Risk and control in consumer behavior: a discussion”, in Grima, S., Özen, E., Boz, H., Spiteri, J. and Thalassinos, E. (Eds), Contemporary Issues in Behavioral Finance, Emerald Publishing, Bingley, Vol. 101, pp. 1-12.

Kraus, S.J. (1995), “Attitudes and the prediction of behavior: a meta-analysis of the empirical literature”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 21, pp. 58-75.

Kumar, A. (2020), “Disastrous impact of Coronavirus (COVID 19) on tourism and hospitality industry in India”, Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Vol. 12 No. 5, pp. 698-712.

Küpeli, T.Ş. and Özer, L. (2020), “Assessing perceived risk and perceived value in the hotel industry: an integrated approach”, Anatolia, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 111-130.

Kuo, H.I., Chen, C.C., Tseng, W.C., Ju, L.F. and Huang, B.W. (2008), “Assessing impacts of SARS and Avian Flu on international tourism demand to Asia”, Tourism Management, Vol. 29 No. 5, pp. 917-928.

Kyrylov, Y., Hranovska, V., Boiko, V., Kwilinski, A. and Boiko, L. (2020), “International tourism development in the context of increasing globalization risks: on the example of Ukraine's integration into the global tourism industry”, Journal of Risk and Financial Management, Vol. 13 No. 12, pp. 303-321.

Lai, C., Li, X. and Harrill, R. (2013), “Chinese outbound tourists' perceived constraints to visiting the United States”, Tourism Management, Vol. 37 No. 8, pp. 136-146.

Lam, T. and Hsu, C.H. (2004), “Theory of planned behavior: potential travelers from China”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Vol. 28 No. 4, pp. 463-482.

Lancaster, E.M., Sosa, J.A., Sammann, A., Pierce, L., Shen, W., Conte, M. and Wick, E. (2020), “Rapid response of an academic surgical department to the COVID-19 pandemic: implications for patients, surgeons, and the community”, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Vol. 230 No. 6, pp. 1064-1073.

Larsson, S. and Gustavsson, S. (2020), Marketing Innovation for SMEs during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of the Hospitality Industry in Norrbotten, Luleå University of Technology, Degree Project.

Lau, H., Khosrawipour, V., Kocbach, P., Mikolajczyk, A., Ichii, H., Schubert, J., Bania, J. and Khosrawipour, T. (2020), “Internationally lost COVID-19 cases”, Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Vol. 53 No. 3, pp. 454-458.

Law, R. (2006), “The perceived impact of risks on travel decisions”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 289-306.

Laws, E. and Prideaux, B. (2005), “Crisis management: a suggested typology”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 19 Nos 2/3, pp. 1-8.

Lawton, G. and Page, S. (1997), “Evaluating travel agents' provision of health advice to travelers”, Tourism Management, Vol. 18, pp. 89-104.

Lee, C.K., Song, H.J., Bendle, L.J., Kim, M.J. and Han, H. (2012), “The impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions for 2009 H1N1 influenza on travel intentions: a model of goal-directed behavior”, Tourism Management, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp. 89-99, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.02.006.

Lehto, X., Douglas, A.C. and Park, J. (2008), “Mediating the effects of natural disasters on travel intention”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 23 Nos 2-4, pp. 29-43.

Lepp, A. and Gibson, H. (2003), “Tourist roles, perceived risk and international tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 606-624.

Li, M., Dong, Y., Wang, H., Guo, W., Zhou, H., Zhang, Z., Tian, C., Du, K., Zhu, R., Wang, L., Zhao, L., Fan, H., Luo, S. and Hu, D. (2020a), “Cardiovascular disease potentially contributes to the progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19”, Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 30 No. 7, pp. 1061-1067.

Li, J., Feng, Y., Li, G. and Sun, X. (2020b), “Tourism companies' risk exposures on text disclosure”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 84, p. 102986.

Li, Z., Zhang, X., Yang, K., Singer, R and Cui, R. (2021), “Urban and rural tourism under COVID-19 in China: research on the recovery measures and tourism development. Tourism Review”, available at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TR-08-2020-0357/full/.

Limbu, Y.B., Wolf, M. and Lunsford, D. (2012), “Perceived ethics of online retailers and consumer behavioral intentions: the mediating roles of trust and attitude”, Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 133-154.

Liu, M. and Yu, Y.F. (2012), “The impact of consumers' beliefs on attitudes and patronage intention toward green restaurant in Taiwan”, Advanced Materials Research, Vols 524-527, pp. 3501-3504.

Liu, B., Pennington-Gray, L. and Krieger, J. (2016), “Tourism crisis management: can the Extended Parallel Process Model be used to understand crisis responses in the cruise industry?”, Tourism Management, Vol. 55, pp. 310-321.

López-Bonilla, J.M. and López-Bonilla, L.M. (2014), “Holistic competence approach in tourism higher education: an exploratory study in Spain”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 17 No. 4, pp. 312-326.

Loureiro, S.M. and González, F.J. (2008), “The importance of quality, satisfaction, trust, and image in relation to rural tourist loyalty”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 25, pp. 117-136.

Lutz, B. and Lutz, J. (2020), “Terrorism and tourism in the Caribbean: a regional analysis”, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 55-71.

Mansfeld, Y. (2006), “The role of security information in tourism crisis management: the missing link”, in Mansfeld, Y. and Pizam, A. (Eds), Tourism, Security and Safety from Theory to Practice, Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA.

Mao, C.K., Ding, C.G. and Lee, H.Y. (2010), “Post-SARS tourist arrival recovery patterns: an analysis based on a catastrophe theory”, Tourism Management, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 855-861.

Maritz, A., Yeh, S. and Shieh, C. (2013), “Effects of personality trait on perceived risk and travel intention in tourism industry”, Actual Problems of Economics, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 103-109.

Martin, C. (2020), “Unlocking sustainable strategic renewal after COVID-19: opportunities for hospitality”, available at: https://www.hospitalitynet.org/opinion/4098309.html (accessed 20 July 2020).

Maser, B. and Weiermair, K. (1998), “Travel decision-making: from the vantage point of perceived risk and information preferences”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 107-121.

Matthews, A. (1990), “Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety”, Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 28, pp. 455-468, doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(90)90132-3.

Mawby, R.I. (2014), “Crime and disorder, security and the tourism industry”, in Gill, M. (Ed.), The Handbook of Security, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

McAleer, M., Huang, B.W., Kuo, H.I., Chen, C.C. and Chang, C.L. (2010), “An econometric analysis of SARS and Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia”, Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 100-106.

McLellan, R.W. and Foushee, K.D. (1983), “Negative images of the United States as expresses by tour operators from other countries”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 2-5.

Mitchell, V.W. (1999), “Consumer perceived risk: conceptualisations and models”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33 Nos 1/2, pp. 163-195.

Mitchell, V.W. and Vassos, V. (1997), “Perceived risk and risk reduction in holiday purchases: a cross-cultural and gender analysis”, Journal of Euromarketing, Vol. 6 No. 3, pp. 47-79.

Morrison, A.M. (2013), Marketing and Managing Tourism Destinations, Routledge, New York.

Moutinho, L. (1987), “Consumer behaviour in tourism”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 21 No. 10, pp. 3-44.

Nicolau, J.L. and Santa-María, M.J. (2013), “The effect of innovation on hotel market value”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 32, pp. 71-79.

Nikbin, D. and Hyun, S.S. (2017), “Does travellers' casual attribution affect pre-recovery emotions and behavioural intentions? A field study of airline travellers in Malaysia”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 80-93.

Novelli, M., Burgess, L.G., Jones, A. and Ritchie, B.W. (2018), “‘No Ebola… still doomed’–The Ebola-induced tourism crisis”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 70, pp. 76-87.

Nunnally, J.C. and Bernstein, I.H. (1994), Psychological Theory, MacGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M.J. and de Luis-García, R. (2020), “Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university”, Psychiatry Research, Vol. 290, pp. 1-8.

Page, S., Yeoman, I., Munro, C., Connell, J. and Walker, L. (2006), “A case study of best practice—visit Scotland's prepared response to an influenza pandemic”, Tourism Management, Vol. 27 No. 3, pp. 361-393.

Pappas, N. (2015), “Marketing hospitality industry in an era of crisis”, Tourism Planning and Development, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 333-349.

Park, S.H., Hsieh, C.M. and Lee, C.K. (2017), “Examining Chinese college students' intention to travel to Japan using the extended theory of planned behavior: testing destination image and the mediating role of travel constraints”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 113-131.

Perini, G.F., Fischer, T., Gaiolla, R.D., Rocha, T.B., Bellesso, M., Teixeira, L.L.C., … and Baiocchi, O.C.C.G. (2020), “How to manage lymphoid malignancies during novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: a Brazilian task force recommendation”, Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy, Vol. 42 No. 2, pp. 103-110.

Pires, G., Stanton, J. and Eckford, A. (2004), “Influences on the perceived risk of purchasing online”, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol. 4, pp. 118-131, doi: 10.1002/cb.163.

Pizam, A. (1999), “A comprehensive approach to classifying acts of crime and violence at tourism destinations”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 38, pp. 5-12.

Poon, A. and Adams, E. (2000), How the British Will Travel 2005. Tourism Intelligence, International Bielefeld, Germany.

Promsivapallop, P. and Kannaovakun, P. (2017), “A comparative assessment of destination image, travel risk perceptions and travel intention by young travellers across three ASEAN countries: a study of German students”, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 22 No. 6, pp. 634-650.

Qi, C.X., Gibson, H.J. and Zhang, J.J. (2009), “Perceptions of risk and travel intentions: the case of China and the Beijing Olympic Games”, Journal of Sport and Tourism, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 43-67.

Quintal, V.A., Lee, J.A. and Soutar, G.N. (2010), “Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: a tourism example”, Tourism Management, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 797-805.

Reisinger, Y. and Mavondo, F. (2005), “Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: implications of travel risk perception”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 212-225.

Republic of Turkey Health Ministry (2021), “COVID-19 information page”, available at: https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/?_Dil=2 (accessed 05 February 2021).

Richter, L.K. (2003), “International tourism and its global public health consequences”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 41 No. 4, pp. 340-347.

Rittichainuwat, B.N. and Chakraborty, G. (2009), “Perceived travel risks regarding terrorism and disease: the case of Thailand”, Tourism Management, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 410-418.

Robichaud, M. and Dugas, M.J. (2005), “Negative problem orientation (Part II): construct validity and specificity to worry”, Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 43, pp. 403-412, doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.02.008.

Roncon, L., Zuin, M., Rigatelli, G. and Zuliani, G. (2020), “Diabetic patients with COVID-19 infection are at higher risk of ICU admission and poor short-term outcome”, Journal of Clinical Virology, Vol. 127, doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104354.

Roodurmun, J. and Juwaheer, T.D. (2010), “Influence of trust on destination loyalty: an empirical analysis the discussion of the research approach”, International Research Symposium in Service Management, Mauritius, pp. 24-27.

Ru, X., Wang, S., Chen, Q. and Yan, S. (2018), “Exploring the interaction effects of norms and attitudes on green travel intention: an empirical study in Eastern China”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 197, pp. 1317-1327.

Sasso, S. (2005), “Perceived risk”, in Pizam, A. (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management, Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA, p. 465.

Seabra, C., Reis, P. and Abrantes, L.J. (2020), “The influence of terrorism in tourism arrivals: a longitudinal approach in a Mediterranean country”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 80, pp. 1-13.

Seddighi, H.R., Nuttall, M.W. and Theocharous, A.L. (2001), “Does cultural background of tourists influence the destination choice? An empirical study with special reference to political instability”, Tourism Management, Vol. 22, pp. 181-191.

Scaglione, M., Schegg, R. and Murphy, J. (2009), “Website adoption and sales performance in Valais' hospitality industry”, Technovation, Vol. 29 No. 9, pp. 625-631.

Schiffman, L.G., Kanuk, L.L. and Wisenblit, J. (2010), Consumer Behavior Tenth Edition, Pearson Education, New Jersey, pp. 491-492.

Şengel, Ü., Çevrimkaya, M., Işkın, M. and Zengin, B. (2020a), “The effects of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on hospitality industry: a case study”, Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, Vol. 8 No. 3, pp. 1646-1667.

Şengel, Ü., Genç, G., Işkın, M., Çevrimkaya, M., Zengin, B. and Sarıışık, M. (2022), “The impact of anxiety levels on destination visit intention in the context of COVID-19: the mediating role of travel intention”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print, doi: 10.1108/JHTI-10-2021-0295 (In press).

Şengel, Ü., Genç, K., Işkın, M., Ulema, Ş. and Uzut, İ. (2020b), “Turizmde “Sosyal Mesafe” Mümkün Mü? Kamp ve Karavan Turizmi Bağlamında Bir Değerlendirme”, Turkish Studies, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 1429-1441.

Şengel, Ü., Işkın, M., Genç, G. and Çevrimkaya, M. (2020c), “COVID-19 İle İlgili Ölüm Kaygısının Seyahat Davranışına Etkisi”, Gaziantep Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Vol. 19 No. COVID-19 Special Issue, pp. 105-121.

Sevinç, E. (2013), “Çoklu Regresyon Korelasyon Analizinde Varsayımdan Sapmalar ve Çimento Sektörü Üzerine Uygulama [deviations from Assumption in multiple Regression correlation analysis and application on the cement sector]”, available at: http://serpam.org/wp-content/uploads/Sevinc2013.pdf (accessed 05 February 2020).

Sharifpour, M., Walters, G., Ritchie, B.W. and Winter, C. (2014), “Investigating the role of prior knowledge in tourist decision making: a structural equation model of risk perceptions and information search”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 53 No. 3, pp. 307-322.

Shi, Y., Wang, J., Yang, Y., Wang, Z., Wang, G., Hashimoto, K., Zhang, K. and Liu, H. (2020), “Knowledge and attitudes of medical staff in Chinese psychiatric hospitals regarding COVID-19”, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity-Health, p. 100064.

Shim, E., Tariq, A., Choi, W., Lee, Y. and Chowell, G. (2020), “Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea”, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 93, pp. 339-344.

Singh, A.K., Singh, A., Shaikh, A., Singh, R. and Misra, A. (2020), “Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes: a systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries”, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 241-246.

Sio-Chong, U. and So, Y.C. (2020), “The impacts of financial and non-financial crises on tourism: evidence from Macao and Hong Kong”, Tourism Management Perspectives, Vol. 33, p. 100628.

Smith, P.G. and Merritt, G.M. (2020), Proactive Risk Management: Controlling Uncertainty in Product Development, CRC Press, New York.

Sönmez, S. (1998), “Tourism, terrorism, and political instability”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 25, pp. 416-456.

Sönmez, S. and Graefe, A. (1998a), “Influence of terrorism risk on foreign tourism decisions”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 112-144.

Sönmez, S.F. and Graefe, A.R. (1998b), “Determining future travel behavior from past travel experience and perceptions of risk and safety”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 171-177.

Staats, S., Panek, P.E. and Cosmar, D. (2006), “Predicting travel attitudes among university faculty after 9/11”, The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 140 No. 2, pp. 121-132.

Sweeney, J.C., Soutar, G.N. and Johnson, L.W. (1999), “The role of perceived risk in the quality-value relationship: a study in a retail environment”, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 75, pp. 77-105.

Tan, W.K. and Wu, C.E. (2016), “An investigation of the relationships among destination familiarity, destination image and future visit intention”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 214-226.

Tavitiyaman, P. and Qu, H. (2013), “Destination image and behavior intention of travelers to Thailand: the moderating effect of perceived risk”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 169-185.

TÜİK (Turkish Statistical Institute) (2020), available at: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/UstMenu.do?metod=temelist (accessed 05 April 2021).

UNWTO (2020a), “Impact on tourism”, available at: https://www.unwto.org/tourism-COVID-19 (accessed 10 April 2021).

UNWTO (2020b), “Impact assessment of the COVID-19 outbreak on the international Tourism”, available at: https://www.unwto.org/impact-assessment-of-the-COVID-19-outbreak-on-international-tourism (accessed 05 April 2021).

Wallis, P. and Nerlich, B. (2005), “Disease metaphors in new epidemics: the UK media framing of the 2003 SARS epidemic”, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 60 No. 11, pp. 2629-2639.

Wang, Y.S. (2009), “The impact of crisis events and macroeconomic activity on Taiwan's international inbound tourism demand”, Tourism Management, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 75-82.

Weber, E.U. and Hsee, C. (1998), “Cross-cultural differences in risk perception, but cross-cultural similarities in attitudes towards perceived risk”, Management Science, Vol. 44 No. 9, pp. 1205-1217.

Wilder-Smith, A. (2006), “The severe acute respiratory syndrome: impact on travel and tourism”, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 53-60.

Wilks, J. and Page, S. (2006), “Current status of tourist health and safety”, in Wilks, J. and Page, D. (Eds), Managing Tourist Health and Safety in the New Millennium, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 3-18.

Williams, A.S. (2015), “Statistics anxiety and worry: the roles of worry beliefs, negative problem orientation, and cognitive avoidance”, Statistics Education Research Journal, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 53-75.

Yang, Y., Zhang, H. and Chen, X. (2020 In this issue), “Coronavirus pandemic and tourism: dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling of infectious disease outbreak”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 83 Supp. 102913, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.102913 (In this issue).

Yoon, Y. and Uysal, M. (2005), “An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model”, Tourism Management, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 45-56.

Youssef, A.B., Zeqiri, A. and Dedaj, B. (2020), “Short and long Run effects of COVID-19 on the hospitality industry and the potential effects on Jet Fuel Markets”, IAEE Energy Forum, No. Covid-19 Issue, pp. 121-124.

Zarrad, H. and Debabi, M. (2015), “Analyzing the effect of electronic word of mouth on tourists' attitude toward destination and travel intention”, International Research Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 53-60.

Zhang, H., Gursoy, D. and Xu, H. (2017), “The effects of associative slogans on tourists' attitudes and travel intention: the moderating effects of need for cognition and familiarity”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 56 No. 2, pp. 206-220.

Zhang, C., Wu, Z., Li, J.W., Zhao, H. and Wang, G.Q. (2020), “The cytokine release syndrome (CRS) of severe COVID-19 and Interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) antagonist Tocilizumab may be the key to reduce the mortality”, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 55 No. 5, doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105954.

Zheng, Y., Goh, E. and Wen, J. (2020), “The effects of misleading media reports about COVID-19 on Chinese tourists' mental health: a perspective article”, Anatolia, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp. 337-340.

## Corresponding author

Gökhan Genç is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: gencgokhan91@gmail.com

Ümit Şengel has a Ph.D. in Tourism Management (2019) from Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. He is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Tourism Guidance at Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. His research interests include tourism management, tourism economy and tourism literary.

Gökhan Gençhas a Ph.D. in Tourism Management (2022) from Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. He received his bachelor's degree from Mustafa Kemal University and master's degree from Sakarya University. His research interests include tourism marketing, tourist behavior and sustainable tourism. He has published and presented papers in international journals and conferences.

Merve Işkın has a Ph.D. in Tourism Management from Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. She is an Associate Professor at the Department of Culinary at Ordu University. Her research interests include Gastronomy Tourism, Tourism Management.

Mustafa Çevrimkaya is a research fellow at the Department of Tourism Guidance at Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate at the same university. His research interests include tour guiding, travel agency and tourism marketing.

Ioannis Assiouras is an Associate Professor in Marketing at ESDES Business School of Catholic University of Lyon. His research interests include value co-creation, crisis management, sustainability, and service recovery.

Burhanettin Zengin has a Ph.D. in Tourism Management (1994) from Istanbul University. He is a professor at the Department of Tourism Guidance at Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. His research interests accounting, tourism and marketing.

Mehmet Sarıışık has a Ph.D. in Tourism Management (1998) from Aydın Adnan Menderes University. He is a professor at the Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts at Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. His research interests include Gastronomy, Tourism.

Dimitros Buhalis is a Strategic Management and Marketing expert with a specialisation in Information Communication Technology applications in the Tourism, Travel, Hospitality and Leisure industries. He is currently Visiting Professor at the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Professor Buhalis has written and co-edited more than 20 books and 250 scientific articles. His research is referenced widely, on Google Scholar with more than 53,500 citations and h index 100. Professor Dimitrios Buhalis was recognised as a Highly Cited Researcher 2020 and 2021 by Clarivate™. https://recognition.webofscience.com/awards/highly-cited/2020/. His research pioneers smart and ambient intelligence tourism with a particular focus on innovation, entrepreneurship and destination ecosystems management.