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Entrepreneurship barriers faced by Pakistani female students in relation to their entrepreneurial inclinations and entrepreneurial success

Bahadur Ali Soomro (Department of Economics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Abdul Haq Campus, Karachi, Pakistan)
Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed (Department of Business Administration, College of Business Management, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia)
Naimatullah Shah (Department of Public Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan)

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management

ISSN: 2053-4620

Article publication date: 5 December 2022




The current environment is unhelpful to female entrepreneurs, and they need to overcome numerous barriers when starting their own businesses. In this study, the researchers investigated the significant barriers that Pakistani female entrepreneurs require to overcome in this respect.


In this study, the researchers used a quantitative study and they used a questionnaire to survey the respondents and collect cross-sectional data. The researchers targeted female students who were undertaking bachelor’s and master’s degree programs in different Pakistani public and private sector universities. Accordingly, the researchers based this study’s findings on the usable samples received from 498 Pakistani female students.


The researchers used a structural equation model (SEM) in this study and its findings highlight that aversion to risk (ATR) has an insignificant impact on entrepreneurial inclinations (EI). In addition, fear of failure (FoF), lack of resources (LoR), aversion to hard work and stress (ASH) and the lack of social networking (LSN) have negative and insignificant effects on EI. The ATR factor has an insignificant effect on entrepreneurial success (ES), whereas FoF, LoR, ASH and LSN are negative and insignificant predictors of Pakistani female students’ ES.

Practical implications

This study’s findings may help Pakistani women to overcome the barriers to ES. In this respect, the researchers recommend that the Pakistan Government and policymakers develop significant strategies to provide the conducive business environment and to financially support Pakistani women to start their own businesses. Furthermore, this study’s findings contribute greatly to the vast amount of current literature and help to overcome the entrepreneurial conditions and barriers that potential entrepreneurs from advanced and developing countries experience frequently.


This study’s findings provide empirical evidence of EI and ES in Pakistan.



Soomro, B.A., Abdelwahed, N.A.A. and Shah, N. (2022), "Entrepreneurship barriers faced by Pakistani female students in relation to their entrepreneurial inclinations and entrepreneurial success", Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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