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Entrepreneurial leadership measurement: a multi-dimensional construct

Afsaneh Bagheri (University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)
Christian Harrison (University of the West of Scotland, Lanarkshire Campus, Glasgow, UK)

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development

ISSN: 1462-6004

Article publication date: 23 July 2020

Issue publication date: 11 August 2020




The purpose of this paper is to refine our understanding of entrepreneurial leadership by developing a multi-dimensional measure for the construct through a comprehensive approach based on the skills and competencies of entrepreneurial leaders as well as their behaviour and roles.


Following the evidence collected across two cultural and economic contexts namely Iran and Scotland and prior theoretical conceptualisations, this study designed an entrepreneurial leadership scale. Questionnaires were the mode of data collection, and data was triangulated via participants and literature.


From the study a detailed conceptualisation of entrepreneurial leadership was formed, which in turn provides the basis for an empirical-based construct of this phenomenon and its measurement from a cross-cultural perspective. Specifically, this study identifies the items that best describe each dimension of entrepreneurial leadership. By these findings, this study provides the skills, competencies and specific behaviour of entrepreneurial leaders.


The findings of this study have implications the theory and practice. By highlighting the dimensions of entrepreneurial leadership, this study assists the development of theories on how entrepreneurial leadership influence the process of innovation and opportunity recognition. This study is one of the first to examine the validity and reliability of the measure developed for the construct across two countries having different cultural and economic contexts, namely Iran and Scotland. In practice, the findings of this study serve as a useful reference for practitioners of the skills, behaviours and competencies expected of entrepreneurial leaders.



Bagheri, A. and Harrison, C. (2020), "Entrepreneurial leadership measurement: a multi-dimensional construct", Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 659-679.



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