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Depression and association with diet diversity score among adolescent (14-19) students of Jimma town high school, Jimma, southwest Ethiopia

Mekonnen Tsehay (Department of Psychiatry, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia)
Shimelis Girma (Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia)
Almaz Mamaru (Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia)
Mubarek Abera (Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia)

Journal of Public Mental Health

ISSN: 1746-5729

Article publication date: 7 June 2021

Issue publication date: 14 September 2021

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Abstract

Purpose

Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to determine magnitude and severity of depression and its relation with diet diversity score (DDS) among adolescent high school students.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 546 adolescents selected from schools using multistage sampling technique. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall, and depression severity and prevalence were assessed by PHQ-9A. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Linear regression analysis was used, and unstandardized beta (ß) coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to determine the association of depression and its severity with dietary diversity score.

Findings

In all, 546 questionnaires were filled completely and consistently making a response rate of 97.3%. The dietary diversity score in 97 (17.8%) of the adolescents were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 259 (47.4%) scored greater than 6 (high dietary diversity score). Chi-square test revealed that with a decrease in DDS from highest to lowest level, the percentage of moderate to severe and severe depression slightly increased (3.4%). In addition, the percentage of moderate to severe and severe depression who consumed meat, fish and milk and dairy products slightly increased (3% and 3.2%). Multivariate adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with depression severity and prevalence.

Originality/value

It was found that linear association between diet diversity and depression severity, and prevalence after adjustment for relevant con-founders. The study provided epidemiological evidence of a robust association of dietary pattern with depression symptoms' severity and prevalence in adolescents.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their gratitude to the participants of the current study. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Availability of data and materials: The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Ethics approval and consent to participate: The study protocol and the consent form were approved by the Ethics review board of Jimma University. Written informed consent from the parents and informed assent was taken from the respondents. Funding: Not available.

Citation

Tsehay, M., Girma, S., Mamaru, A. and Abera, M. (2021), "Depression and association with diet diversity score among adolescent (14-19) students of Jimma town high school, Jimma, southwest Ethiopia", Journal of Public Mental Health, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 229-239. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-11-2020-0149

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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