The purpose of this paper is to review the development and current position of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in the UK, drawing on the content within a State-of-the-Art Review of Business Improvement Districts in the UK: setting the agenda for policy, practice and research, commissioned by The BID Foundation and produced by members of the Institute of Place Management.
The paper is divided into seven main sections. The first section defines the concept of BIDs, outlines their process of establishment and provides a brief critique of BIDs from the academic literature. Second, the process of introducing BIDs into the UK is discussed. Third, the different types of BIDs that currently exist are detailed. The fourth section outlines the development of BIDs since their introduction in 2004. Fifth, an analysis of BID ballots is provided, involving details of ballot results, demonstrating a general improvement as BIDs develop over time. The sixth section comprises a discussion of unsuccessful ballots and BID terminations. The paper concludes with a brief analysis of issues BIDs face in the UK, looking into the future.
The paper contains three main empirical contributions: first, a numerical analysis of the different types of BIDs in the UK; second, a timeline of their development from 2005 to 2018; and third, a statistical analysis of BID ballot results over this period, with an indication of the numbers of unsuccessful ballots and BID terminations.
This paper provides the first comprehensive overview of BIDs in the UK detailing development and performance (e.g. ballot results) in the 15 years since their introduction.
Grail, J., Mitton, C., Ntounis, N., Parker, C., Quin, S., Steadman, C., Warnaby, G., Cotterill, E. and Smith, D. (2020), "Business improvement districts in the UK: a review and synthesis", Journal of Place Management and Development, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMD-11-2019-0097
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