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Business improvement districts in the UK: a review and synthesis

Julie Grail (The BIDs Business London, UK)
Catherine Mitton (The BID Foundation, Manchester, UK)
Nikos Ntounis (Institute of Place Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK)
Cathy Parker (Institute of Place Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK)
Simon Quin (Institute of Place Management, Manchester, UK)
Chloe Steadman (Marketing Retail and Tourism/Institute of Place Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK)
Gary Warnaby (Institute of Place Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK)
Emily Cotterill (FOR Cardiff, Cardiff, UK)
Diane Smith (Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK)

Journal of Place Management and Development

ISSN: 1753-8335

Article publication date: 14 January 2020

Issue publication date: 6 February 2020

511

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the development and current position of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in the UK, drawing on the content within a State-of-the-Art Review of Business Improvement Districts in the UK: setting the agenda for policy, practice and research, commissioned by The BID Foundation and produced by members of the Institute of Place Management.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is divided into seven main sections. The first section defines the concept of BIDs, outlines their process of establishment and provides a brief critique of BIDs from the academic literature. Second, the process of introducing BIDs into the UK is discussed. Third, the different types of BIDs that currently exist are detailed. The fourth section outlines the development of BIDs since their introduction in 2004. Fifth, an analysis of BID ballots is provided, involving details of ballot results, demonstrating a general improvement as BIDs develop over time. The sixth section comprises a discussion of unsuccessful ballots and BID terminations. The paper concludes with a brief analysis of issues BIDs face in the UK, looking into the future.

Findings

The paper contains three main empirical contributions: first, a numerical analysis of the different types of BIDs in the UK; second, a timeline of their development from 2005 to 2018; and third, a statistical analysis of BID ballot results over this period, with an indication of the numbers of unsuccessful ballots and BID terminations.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first comprehensive overview of BIDs in the UK detailing development and performance (e.g. ballot results) in the 15 years since their introduction.

Keywords

Citation

Grail, J., Mitton, C., Ntounis, N., Parker, C., Quin, S., Steadman, C., Warnaby, G., Cotterill, E. and Smith, D. (2020), "Business improvement districts in the UK: a review and synthesis", Journal of Place Management and Development, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMD-11-2019-0097

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

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