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A comparative analysis of dimensions of COO and animosity on industrial buyers’ attitudes and intentions

Hakim Meshreki (The American University in Cairo, Egypt)
Christine Ennew (University of Warwick, UK)
Maha Moustafa Mourad (Department of Management, The American University in Cairo, Egypt)

Journal of Product & Brand Management

ISSN: 1061-0421

Article publication date: 15 November 2018

Issue publication date: 7 December 2018




Country of origin (COO) is well established as an extrinsic product cue that influences buyer behavior in the business-to-business (B2B) context. However, non-product-specific attitudes to a COO, including the notion of animosity, have received rather less attention. This paper aims to investigate COO as a multi-dimensional construct and animosity as a normative dimension of buyers’ attitudes and intentions.


The work is based on data collected from industrial buyers in Egypt and Canada to enable a comparative perspective between developing and developed countries. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study’s hypotheses.


Country of manufacture was an antecedent of perceived quality and a determinant of brand evaluation in both countries. Price was an antecedent of perceived risk and value in Egypt, while its impact on perceived risk was less pronounced in Canada. Perceived value was the strongest determinant of willingness to buy, while animosity played a significant role in this respect in Canada but not in Egypt.

Research limitations/implications

Country of brand was not included as a dimension to be investigated; industry type was not controlled and may confound the results; and generalization of the results is limited given the cross-sectional approach.


The study’s contribution lies in four main elements, viewed individually and in combination: investigating a large number of COO constructs that have not been studied within a single research context in B2B before; including the animosity construct in a B2B setting; contrasting “benefit received” and “sacrifice given” constructs that help to shape industrial buyers’ purchase decisions; and carrying out the research in two very different countries to help improve the generalizability of results.



Meshreki, H., Ennew, C. and Mourad, M.M. (2018), "A comparative analysis of dimensions of COO and animosity on industrial buyers’ attitudes and intentions", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 27 No. 7, pp. 832-846.



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