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A multidimensional service-value scale based on Holbrook’s typology of customer value: Bridging the gap between the concept and its measurement

Martina G. Gallarza (Department of Marketing, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain)
Francisco Arteaga (Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain)
Giacomo Del Chiappa (CRENoS and Department of Economics and Business, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy) (School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa)
Irene Gil-Saura (Department of Marketing, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain)
Morris B. Holbrook (Columbia Business School, Emeritus, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA)

Journal of Service Management

ISSN: 1757-5818

Article publication date: 21 August 2017




In the fertile line of research on consumer value from the services literature, a gap exists between theoretical and empirical knowledge, in particular regarding Holbrook’s conceptual value framework. The purpose of this paper is to find construct validity for a multidimensional value scale based on Holbrook’s proposal.


Based on a literature review, a qualitative phase, and consultation with an expert, eight value scales (efficiency, service quality, play, aesthetics, status, esteem, ethics, and escapism as an adaptation of spirituality) are tested on a sample of 585 hotel customers and are further analyzed with simple and partial correlations, multiple regressions, and structural modeling.


Following the literature on the merits of Holbrook’s value typology, results are presented in three concatenated phases: validation of Holbrook’s eight value scales corresponding to his eight value types; interrelationships between these value types showing a predominance of the extrinsic-intrinsic and self-other dimensions; and construction of six indices based on the 2×2×2 matrix (self, other, extrinsic, intrinsic, active, and reactive) and a value index as a higher-order representation. The results support Holbrook’s typology, thereby supporting construct validity for the multidimensional scales.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for further conceptual research on value are presented. Meanwhile, the empirical study is context-specific, i.e. related to a hospitality experience.


Although Holbrook’s typology has gained widespread attention, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous research has tested all eight value types simultaneously in the same empirical work.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for this study (National R&D Plan ECO2013-43353-R and ECO2016-76553-R).


Gallarza, M.G., Arteaga, F., Del Chiappa, G., Gil-Saura, I. and Holbrook, M.B. (2017), "A multidimensional service-value scale based on Holbrook’s typology of customer value: Bridging the gap between the concept and its measurement", Journal of Service Management, Vol. 28 No. 4, pp. 724-762.



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Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited

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