A deep attention based approach for predictive maintenance applications in IoT scenarios

Roberto De Luca (Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (DIETI), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)
Antonino Ferraro (Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (DIETI), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)
Antonio Galli (Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (DIETI), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)
Mosè Gallo (Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)
Vincenzo Moscato (Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (DIETI), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)
Giancarlo Sperlì (Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (DIETI), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management

ISSN: 1741-038X

Article publication date: 7 February 2023

Issue publication date: 15 May 2023

2028

Abstract

Purpose

The recent innovations of Industry 4.0 have made it possible to easily collect data related to a production environment. In this context, information about industrial equipment – gathered by proper sensors – can be profitably used for supporting predictive maintenance (PdM) through the application of data-driven analytics based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. Although deep learning (DL) approaches have proven to be a quite effective solutions to the problem, one of the open research challenges remains – the design of PdM methods that are computationally efficient, and most importantly, applicable in real-world internet of things (IoT) scenarios, where they are required to be executable directly on the limited devices’ hardware.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors propose a DL approach for PdM task, which is based on a particular and very efficient architecture. The major novelty behind the proposed framework is to leverage a multi-head attention (MHA) mechanism to obtain both high results in terms of remaining useful life (RUL) estimation and low memory model storage requirements, providing the basis for a possible implementation directly on the equipment hardware.

Findings

The achieved experimental results on the NASA dataset show how the authors’ approach outperforms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency the majority of the most diffused state-of-the-art techniques.

Research limitations/implications

A comparison of the spatial and temporal complexity with a typical long-short term memory (LSTM) model and the state-of-the-art approaches was also done on the NASA dataset. Despite the authors’ approach achieving similar effectiveness results with respect to other approaches, it has a significantly smaller number of parameters, a smaller storage volume and lower training time.

Practical implications

The proposed approach aims to find a compromise between effectiveness and efficiency, which is crucial in the industrial domain in which it is important to maximize the link between performance attained and resources allocated. The overall accuracy performances are also on par with the finest methods described in the literature.

Originality/value

The proposed approach allows satisfying the requirements of modern embedded AI applications (reliability, low power consumption, etc.), finding a compromise between efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords

Citation

De Luca, R., Ferraro, A., Galli, A., Gallo, M., Moscato, V. and Sperlì, G. (2023), "A deep attention based approach for predictive maintenance applications in IoT scenarios", Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 34 No. 4, pp. 535-556. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMTM-02-2022-0093

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023, Roberto De Luca, Antonino Ferraro, Antonio Galli, Mosè Gallo, Vincenzo Moscato and Giancarlo Sperlì

License

Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


1. Introduction

Currently, we are living in the Industry 4.0 era that refers to the ongoing automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices by using modern smart technologies, such as internet of things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) (Hansen and Bøgh, 2021). In this context, an increasing integration between physical and digital systems of production environments is more and more required, allowing the collection of large amounts of data that are gathered by different and distributed smart equipment and sensors.

Generally speaking, smart sensors are particular devices which generate data regarding physical parameters (e.g. temperature, humidity or vibration speed, etc.) and can provide further functionalities from self-monitoring and self-configuration to efficiently manage complex processes (Zhang et al., 2019).

The analysis of such data provides at the same time useful information about the health status of the machinery and the level of production. By applying data driven analytic approaches, it is then possible to find important results for strategic decision-making, providing advantages such as: maintenance cost reduction, machine fault reduction, spare parts inventory reduction and increased production.

Most of these benefits certainly concern maintenance procedures. This aspect is particularly critical in the industrial field because it has a strong impact on the production and availability of the offered services. Nowadays, the industry is making significant investments for equipping itself with the elements necessary for applying maintenance strategies based on gathered data.

In the literature, there are two main kinds of approaches for supporting maintenance tasks, namely model-driven and data-driven methods, but also hybrid-driven approaches have also become popular in recent years. Specifically, model-driven techniques require expert’s strong theoretical understanding to model the behavior of equipment and its detailed degradation process (Petrillo et al., 2020; Liu et al., 2022). From the other hand, as mentioned above, thanks to the huge amount of information that is possible to collect, data-driven techniques are emerging as the more promising ones to detect anomalies in the operation of the machinery. Regarding hybrid-driven solutions, they are based on the construction of multi-domain models and the development of hybrid algorithms in order to achieve model and data fusion (Luo et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2022a, b).

According to Susto et al. (2015), approaches for maintenance management can be further grouped into three categories: run-to-failure (R2F), preventive maintenance (PvM) and predictive maintenance (PdM). Here, we focused on PdM, where maintenance is performed based on the health status of the specific equipment as reported by attached sensors. Through data driven analysis techniques, it is possible to know when the machinery is going to fail and then planning maintenance procedures accordingly. Basically, maintenance operations are conducted only when necessary, without waiting for machinery to report a fault. With this strategy, companies can save costs due to unnecessary maintenance, but also increase the longevity of the machine. Nevertheless, critical PdM requires several strictly requirements such as reliability, low latency, privacy and power (Mohammadi et al., 2018; Sharma et al., 2019).

As in many other areas concerned with huge amount of complex data to be analyzed, approaches exploiting machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques appear to be the best among the diverse array of modern PdM techniques (Carvalho et al., 2019; Ran et al., 2019; Rieger et al., 2019). Such approaches usually leverage historical datasets, structured as labeled time series about equipment operations, to train a variety of regression/classification models which can then be used to predict possible failures, in terms of remaining useful life (RUL) estimation.

Although DL approaches have proven to be a quite effective solution to the PdM problem, one of the open research challenges remains the design of PdM methods that are computationally efficient, and most importantly, applicable in real-world IoT scenarios, where they are required to be executable directly on the limited devices’ hardware.

Indeed, one of the most important issues for deploying DL architectures in real production scenario is related to the required high computational resources, not available for current equipment micro-controllers, thus favoring cloud or edge/fog computing solutions, which efficiency is often influenced by network connectivity (Teoh et al., 2023).

To overcome such problems, embedded AI techniques are more and more diffusing to propose efficient and not computational expensive data driven analysis approach, directly executable on devices’ hardware of industrial equipment (Brandalero et al., 2020).

In this paper, we propose a DL approach for PdM task, which is based on a particular and very efficient architecture. The major novelty behind the proposed framework is to leverage a multi-head attention (MHA) mechanism to obtain both high results in terms of RUL estimation and low memory model storage requirements, providing the basis for a possible implementation directly on the equipment hardware. The attention mechanism has gained a lot of popularity in last years for its better capacities in several analytics tasks (e.g. NLP) in terms of achieved results and model complexity than recurrent models. For this reason, our basic intuition has been to rearrange such a mechanism to analyze time-series data. The achieved experimental results on the NASA dataset show how our approach outperforms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency the majority of the most diffused state of the art techniques, thus providing a suitable solution for PdM in real scenarios.

The paper is organized as in the following. Section 2 reports the related work about PdM approaches and the related challenges, while Section 3 describes the proposed methodology together with the introduced deep architecture for PdM task. Sections 4 and 5 present the experimental protocol and the achieved results, respectively. Finally, Section 6 reports a final discussion together with some conclusions and future work.

2. Related work

PdM is one of the hottest research topics of recent years and several techniques have been developed in this area. More in detail, the spread of IoT and AI technologies has led several studies to design data-driven methodologies based on ML and DL, exploiting techniques for time series analysis and mining (see Tortorella et al., 2022 and Lundgren et al., 2021). In addition, a recent study proposed by Sala et al. (2021) underlines the features of a framework for PdM capable of jointly analyzing historical and real-time data, to make a continuous improvement of its performances.

Some of the most popular proposals are summarized in Table 1, where it is easy to note as the majority of the approaches is based on long-short term memory (LSTM) networks and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Among the plethora of DL approaches, the most interesting ones for benchmark aims are surely those leveraging the Nasa Turbofan Engine dataset. In particular, the most recent methods that have inspired our work can be classified into two broad categories: Recurrent models and Hybrid models (see Table 2). In the following, we are describing the adopted criteria for literature section, the discussed models and how our proposal overcomes the related limitations.

2.1 Selection criteria

The literature review was conducted following the guidelines introduced by Durach et al. (2017) and Dekkers et al. (2021), which are applicable in different disciplines to achieve quality systematic research.

Specifically, several steps were applied including, first, defining the research question to be met; finding samples of the relevant literature; synthesizing the literature found and reporting the results. Operationally, we focused on retrieving the most relevant published works in the field of PdM with DL-based approaches in different industrial contexts, with special emphasis on those that used our own dataset for experimentation (see Table 1). Works based on recurrent and hybrid network models were the considered. Eventually, the literature study led to the answer to what are the open research challenges in the PdM field.

In detail, articles on Scopus and Google Scholar in the time interval 2017–2022 were consulted and the following keywords, also combined, were used:

“predictive maintenance”, “deep learning”, “recurrent model”, “hybrid”, “machine learning”, “attention mechanism” and “multi-head attention”.

To be specific, based on the selection criteria defined by the keywords above, 21 articles were collected, 17 of which were retrieved from Scopus and four from Google Scholar. A screening of the abstract and methodology was performed, while for only those articles that used the Nasa Turbofan Engine Dataset, a full-paper screening was conducted.

2.2 Recurrent models

Aydemir and Acar (2020) recently proposed a framework composed by two principal components. The first is responsible of detecting a significant deviation from the normal (healthy) condition and successively the second part (an LSTM model) is triggered for the RUL estimation. The proposed system is based on continuously checking for an anomaly and initiating continuous RUL estimation only after anomaly is detected on streaming sensor data.

Another interesting approach based on LSTM has been designed by Sohaidan et al. (2021) for estimating RUL, unveiling hidden patterns through the analysis of sensors sequence information. Similarly, Hesabi et al. (2022) relied upon a further LSTM model with data-driven approach to predict failures based on real working conditions and dynamic loading.

An encoder-decoder architecture based on LSTM has been then used by Ragab et al. (2021), also introducing an attention mechanism to deal with very long sequence. Specifically, by focusing on one aspect of the input (text, image, etc.) while paying less attention to others, attention mechanisms help direct and enhance the training process, also unveiling the relationships between input and output Niu et al. (2021) (see Section 3 for more details). Likewise, Li et al. (2022) introduced another LSTM-based attention mechanism to improve the ability of the model to analyze a sequence of signals in survival analysis. In turn, Chen et al. (2021) proposed a PdM system based on LSTM network adapted on FPGA, whose aim is to jointly reduce power consumption and management cost.

One of the issues related to supervised PdM applications is the lack of an adequate amount of labeled data. To challenge this problem, Listou Ellefsen et al. (2019) investigated the effect of unsupervised pre-training in RUL predictions utilizing a semi-supervised setup. Specifically, in the first layer a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) was utilized as an unsupervised pre-training stage in order to automatically learn abstract features from raw unlabeled input data and to initialize the weights in a region near a good starting point before supervised fine-tuning of the whole architecture was conducted. Next, LSTM is leveraged to learn long-term dependencies. Finally, a fully connected output layer is attached to perform RUL prediction.

2.3 Hybrid models

Al-Dulaimi et al. (2019) proposed a hybrid deep neural network model (HDNN), composed by two parallel paths (LSTM and CNN) followed by a fully connected layer to combine both output to predict the target RUL. This framework uses the LSTM path to extract temporal features while simultaneously the CNN is utilized to extract spatial features. An extension of this approach has been then designed by Al-Dulaimi et al. (2020), introducing a dual path DL architecture which is trained with noisy input data (noisy bidirectional LSTM - NBLSTM). They highlighted that training on noisy data, in particular using a Gaussian Noise, could improve the robustness of the model leading to significantly robust and enhanced generalization behavior.

Recently, Falcon et al. (2020) proposed a dual-stream architecture, which consists of a MHA and a neural Turing machine module. Briefly, the time-series are first cut into shorter windows. For the labeling of these windows, piece-wise linear degradation model was used with the maximum value of the RUL fixed to 125. The obtained windows are then fed to the MHA module, which is a mean for identifying the existing relations between different sensor data in order to reveal hidden patterns among them. The output of the MHA module is then given as input to the networks in each stream. The features extracted by the LSTMs of the first stream and by the CNN of the second one are concatenated to the augmented features computed by the NTM module. At the end, two stacked feedforward networks are used to map the extracted features to a sequence of RUL values.

Hong et al. (2021) presented the ConvNet model using a CNN-LSTM network for estimating RUL of a turbofan engine, also reducing the number of parameters, while Zhang et al. (2022a, b) proposed a novel bi-directional gated recurrent unit with temporal self-attention mechanism (BiGRU-TSAM) to predict RUL.

Finally, Shcherbakov and Sai (2022) proposed a hybrid multi-task DL approach that integrates the advantages of CNN and LSTM networks. The former has been used as features extractor while the latter is used to capture the long-term temporary dependency features.

2.4 Research challenges in predictive maintenance

Despite numerous efforts have been made for developing approaches for PdM in recent years, a set of drawbacks can be identified.

  1. Due to the inherently sequential nature of recurrent neural networks (RNNs), this type of model precludes parallelization within training examples.

  2. When training this type of network the length of time window feeding as input could be an issue. Indeed, RNN suffers from the vanishing and explosion gradient problems. If the sequence is too long, it becomes difficult for the model to retain information about the first timesteps when processing the last ones. Although LSTMs are a type of RNN specifically designed to solve this problem, it still remains an important issue when dealing with very long-term dependencies.

Furthermore, another disadvantage of the reported frameworks concern their complexity. Even if not explicitly explained, it is clear from the models’ descriptions that they have a lot of parameters, thus they require a significant storage space. Authors often do not consider this type of complexity, although it is one of the more important aspect when deploying PdM models. Indeed, the hardware usually hosting these models is resource constraint, especially in terms of memory size and power consumption.

Therefore, it is important to design fast analytics in smaller scale platforms for critical PdM applications to satisfy different requirements, as shown in Mohammadi et al. (2018).

  1. reliability: relying on an Internet connection may not be a viable option;

  2. low latency: these type of applications need an immediate response: transferring data to a cloud server for analysis and returning back the response is subject to latency that could cause problems;

  3. privacy: machinery-related data may be private and therefore should not be transmitted or stored in external places;

  4. power: moving data requires more energy.

Driven by the success obtained by transformer models in natural language processing (NLP) tasks (see Vaswani et al. (2017) for more details), several researchers decided to investigate their use in other fields. Song et al. (2018) developed the SAnD (simpy attend and diagnose) architecture to deal with clinical time-series data, which employs a masked, self-attention mechanism and uses positional encoding and dense interpolation strategies for incorporating temporal order. Wu et al. (2020) used Transformer for time-series forecasting. This is a crucial task in many scientific and engineering disciplines because it aims to predict future trends based on historical data.

The main novelty of our work lies in the introduction of an efficient MHA based deep network for PdM tasks capable of preserving good accuracy performances with reduced times and storage.

Note that, as previously reported, there are various articles in the literature of PdM making use of the attention mechanism, but always in combination with other kind of networks (LSTMs or CNNs). In this work, however, the proposed model relies only on the attention mechanism, as explained in Section 3, thus providing an efficient solution for embedded AI applications.

3. Methodology

As we have seen from previous sections, tasks related to PdM can be modeled as: (1) regression problem, in which the main purpose is the RUL estimation of a machinery; (2) a classification problem, namely the health state prediction. Using data driven techniques, maintenance procedures can be then optimally scheduled, avoiding a downtime period due to the replacement or repair of the faulty asset.

Our aim is to design an AI model capable of estimating RUL from different types of measured equipment data. The general workflow for a RUL estimation process is:

  1. Choose the best type of RUL estimation model for the data and available system knowledge.

  2. Train the estimation model using the historical data.

  3. Using test data of the same type as historical data, estimate the RUL of the test component.

In this section, we details the adopted methodology: we first provide the PdM task definition, then we present the model architecture, with a focus on the related core part, the introduced attention module.

3.1 Task definition

We modeled the PdM task as a particular regression problem.

Let X = {x1, x2, …, xn} a set of input samples, related to the observed RUL values for our equipment in a given n-length temporal window, the PdM task consists in learning from past historical data a particular mapping function f capable of associating to the each input sequence some output samples Y = {y1, y2, …, ym} in a given m-length temporal window, representing the estimated RUL values.

Formally, we have,

(1)Y=f(X,τ)+ϵ
τ being a set of unknown parameters, which we have to determine for our model, and ϵ consists in some error terms that are not directly observed in input data.

The PdM task goal is to estimate the function Y = f(X, τ) that most closely fits the real data. Thus, we have to chosen an AI model providing a reliable mapping function f.

3.2 Model architecture

Figure 1 shows a high-level view of the proposed model architecture for the described PdM task. The figure also describes the data analysis pipeline required for the generation of estimated RUL values.

In particular, the input consists in the historical data coming from sensors giving useful information about the conditions of the monitored machinery. Such data have a temporal component, which is crucial in detecting the degradation trend.

After processing the input data, they are fed into the model able to capture temporal dependencies between features. After setting a proper time window, the data that is gathered as input to the model, is a matrix of size (Tw, Nx), where Tw is the length of the input time window and Nx is the number of considered features. The output of the model is a real number representing the RUL of the machinery.

Specifically, the main components of the proposed architecture are.

  1. the positional encoding block to take into account the relative or absolute position of the time-steps in the input sequence;

  2. the attention module, which is composed by two sub-layers (with residual connections between them):

    • the MHA block;

    • a fully connected network module.

In the following, we are reporting more details about each component.

3.3 Positional encoding

Since the proposed model contains no recurrences, the model does not have any sense of position and order for each timestep. Consequently, there is the need for a way to incorporate the order of the timesteps into the model. Indeed, the order is important to capture a degradation trend in analyzed data.

The proposed solution was to add a piece of information to each timestep about its position in the sequence, and this is named positional encoding.

The idea is to sum to each of the input timesteps a vector of length Nx that contains information about a specific position in a time window.

Let t be the desired position in an input sequence and ptRNx its corresponding encoding, according to Vaswani et al. (2017), in this work we use sine and cosine functions of different frequencies,

(2)pt(2i)=sint10000(2i/Nx)
(3)pt(2i+1)=cost10000((2i+1)/Nx)
where i is the related dimension.

As it can be derived from the formulas, the frequencies are decreasing along the vector dimension. Thus the wavelengths form a geometric progression from 2π to 10,000 × 2π. Finally, the obtained encoding for position t is summed to the t-th timestep in the input sequence.

3.4 Attention module

The proposed attention module is further composed by two sub-modules: the MHA sub-module and a fully connected network.

3.4.1 Multi-head attention

Attention mechanism can be described as mapping a query and a set of key-value pairs to an output. Queries, keys, values and outputs are vectors. The output is computed as a weighted sum of the values, where the weight assigned to each value is given by an arbitrary compatibility function of the query with the corresponding key. According to Vaswani et al. (2017), the selected compatibility function, is the scaled dot-product attention.

Firstly, each of the timesteps in input is linearly projected to obtain its specific query, key and value vectors of dimension dk. Next, given a query, the dot product of the query with all keys is computed. Then, these products are divided by dk. Finally, the softmax function is applied to obtain the weights on the values. These weights can be seen as scores, thus they represent the importance of the values (each corresponding to one multiplied key) with respect to the value corresponding to the query. Intuitively, a subset of more important times receives high weights, while useless ones receive lower weights. At this point, weighted values are summed up.

The explained calculation is valid only when there is a single query. In practice, as we have seen, there are a number of queries equal to the number of timesteps in the selected time window, i.e. Tw. Therefore, in order to speed-up the computation, the scaled dot-product attention is computed on a set of queries of queries simultaneously, packed together into a matrix Q. If we do the same with the keys and values, the output can be expressed as,

(4)Attention(Q,K,V)=softmaxQKTdkV

MHA mechanism (Figure 2) simply repeats the above computation a number of times equal to the chosen number of heads, h. More precisely, instead of calculating a single attention function with one set of queries, keys and values, this mechanism first creates h different sets of queries, keys and values and for each of them performs the attention function in parallel.

The outputs of each head are concatenated and the final result is linearly projected in order to obtain the matrix of shape (Tw, Nx).

Mathematically, MHA is defined as,

(5)MultiHead(Q,K,V)=Concat(head1,,headh)WO
where
(6)headi=Attention(QWiQ,KWiK,VWiV)

At a higher level of abstraction, the MHA sub-module computes a new representation of the input time window. In this representation, each timestep is enriched by the knowledge of the timesteps that precede or follow it in the sequence.

After the attention module, there is a feed forward network. This network is applied to each position separately and identically. Specifically, it consists of two linear transformations with a ReLU activation function.

Mathematically:

(7)FFN(x)=max(0,W1x+b1)W2+b2

As regards to the input and output dimensions, they are equal to Nx. The inner-layer has a variable dimension, given by Nx × FFN_FACTOR.

Finally, after stacking a variable number of attention modules, there are a flatten layer and a final layer containing only one neuron with a ReLU activation function.

4. Experimental evaluation

As already described, the major novelty of this work is to introduce an attention-based deep architecture for PdM. In particular, we designed it for applications requiring predictive models to be stored in memory constraint device. In order to show its validity with respect to common recurrent deep models, a comparison has been made with the most diffused architecture in terms of model’s storage size and accuracy performance according to specific metrics. Specifically, we chose an LSTM network with two layers, each containing 128 units and a final Dense layer with a ReLU as activation function to perform the regression task.

Furthermore, the comparison has been realized by using Turbofan engine degradation simulation dataset [1] provided by NASA Ames Prognostics Data Repository. It is a well-known benchmark used in prognostic and health management (PHM) field. It is generated by C-MAPSS tool that simulates various degradation scenarios of the fleet of engines of the same type. It contains four sub-datasets (called FD001, …, FD004) with different operating conditions and fault modes. Each sub-dataset includes training dataset and testing dataset.

The training dataset is composed of run-to-failure sequential data collected from 21 sensors (see Saxena et al. (2008) for detailed information about the sensors). The engine operates normally at the beginning with certain degrees of initial wear. The sensors record the data of the engine until the fault develops to a system failure.

More in details, each row of the dataset has 26 fields.

  1. Engine ID,

  2. Cycle index,

  3. Three fields representing the operating condition of the engine,

  4. 21 sensor readings.

Test set data is different: the engine starts in an unknown deteriorated state and the readings terminates at some point prior to system failure. Therefore, the aim is to predict the RUL of each engine. For evaluation purposes, the true RUL values for the test trajectories are provided.

In the test dataset, the sensory data of the system prior to the system failure are recorded. The task is to estimate the RUL of the engine in the testing dataset. Therefore, in the testing dataset, the actual RUL of each data sample is provided to check the result of the proposed method.

4.1 Hyperparameters

In order to provide more details about the model’s hyperparameters, here is reported a summary.

  1. NUM_ENC: the number of stacked attention modules.

  2. NUM_HEADS: the number of attention heads in the MHA mechanism.

  3. KEY_DIM: the dimension of the query and key vectors. Although it is not mandatory, in this work the value vector has this dimension.

  4. FFN_FACTOR: this regulates the number of neurons in the first layer of the fully connected sublayer in each of the attention modules.

However, there are other hyperparameters such as learning rate, batch size and number of epochs which are not dependent on the proposed model but affect the training stage of the model. The proposed model has been implemented in Tensorflow 2.0 using the corresponding Keras layers.

Below are summarized the steps followed in the analysis and then give more details about them.

  1. Feature selection and normalization;

  2. RUL target function definition;

  3. Time-windows creation.

4.2 Feature selection and normalization

We perform some feature selection activities, such as the elimination of constant columns. Specifically, deleted columns are: sensor1, sensor5, sensor16, sensor18 and sensor19. Moreover, we eliminate the columns related to the operational condition, since we know it is the same across the engines.

Looking at Figure 3, we can also observe sensor6 and sensor10 are not very useful in detecting a degradation trend. For this reason, we prefer dropping these features. Obviously, this is true also for the other engines.

Finally, the ID of the engines and the cycle numbers are not used when training the model, but they are important when constructing the time windows.

After applying this features selection, we consider 14 columns.

Due to the different ranges for collected sensor measurements, a normalization step is also required to uniform the values and to provide unbiased involvement from the readings of each sensor. In particular, for each sensor we perform a min-max scaling in the range [0, 1].

4.3 RUL target function definition

Data downloaded from the NASA UCR repository cannot be used directly to train a model through supervised learning techniques because it does not contain the ground-truth. In order to solve this issue, various approaches have been proposed in the literature.

We used the so called piece-wise linear degradation model. The main idea behind this strategy is quite simple. Because the engine failure occurred gradually, it is not appropriate to utilize the real RUL when adding the RUL label. In general, the strategy used is to establish the degradation threshold and ignore the period before the engine degrades. When the operating time reaches the degradation threshold, the engine’s remaining useable life reduces monotonically. To address this issue and map this process, a piece-wise linear deterioration model was developed on the basis of Ramasso (2014) approach.

According to most of the related works, we set the clip value equal to 125.

Figure 4 shows the difference between the two main used RUL target functions.

Let us formalize this idea. Let ni be the number of cycles for the i-th engine. Let xi be the actual cycle of the engine. If nixi > 125 then the RUL value for this cycle is fixed to 125. Otherwise, it is equal to ni − xi.

4.4 Time-windows creation

To conclude the data preparation phase, since the proposed model takes a sequence of timesteps as input, there is the need to create such time windows.

We follow the sliding window method, as depicted in Figure 5. Given the window size, W, the total number of cycles, T, and the stride of the window, s, it is possible to construct T − W − s time windows for each engine. For training purposes, we associate the time window the RUL value of the last timestep (cycle) it contains. In this thesis work, various time window size are used: 10, 20, 30 and the stride s is fixed to 1.

4.5 Performance metrics

In this section the evaluation metrics used are described. For Turbofan engine degradation dataset, we consider two objective metrics to test the performance of the model: the scoring function, and the root mean square error (RMSE), since it is a regression problem. Defining RULi and RULi respectively the estimated and the actual RUL of the ith test engine (N in total), the RMSE can be expressed as:

(8)RMSE=1Ni=1N(RULiRULi)

The scoring function was initially proposed in Saxena et al. (2008), but now is widely used in PHM applications. Defining hi=RULiRULi, this function can be expressed by:

(9)S=i=1Nsi

where

(10)si=ehi131ifhi<0ehi101ifhi0

Ideally, this function should be as lower as possible.

In Figure 6 there is a plot representing the scoring function and the RMSE. As we can see, RMSE does not make difference between an early prediction (when the estimated RUL is lower than the real) and a late one. However, in PHM it is crucial to have useful RUL predictions, i.e. predictions that makes possible to repair a machine before its failure. This characteristic is evident in the plot: as the predicted RUL is greater than the real one, the scoring function increases exponentially; if the predicted RUL is lower than the real, clearly it is an error, but not as bad as the previous case. Therefore, the scoring function increases with a lower rate.

5. Results

In this section the achieved results are reported and discussed. In particular, Table 3 shows the performance metrics of the proposed model varying the time window length. To obtain a more robust estimation, all the tests were repeated 10 times and means and standard deviations were taken. Similarly, Table 4 reports the performance metrics of the LSTM network varying the time window length.

More in details, the hyperparameters chosen for the proposed model are: NUM_ENC 1, NUM_HEADS 8, KEY_DIM 28 and FFN_FACTOR 517. Regarding the LSTM model we used two layer each with 128 units. Adam optimizer has been used to train both models, the maximum number of epochs was set to 300, batch size to 128 and learning rate to 10e − 3.

The first consideration we can derive from looking at the results is that,as we expected, both the models benefits from the time window length increase.

Indeed, performance metrics reach their best score with a time window length fixed at 30 cycles. This behavior is quite reasonable because a larger number of samples can help in extracting a degradation pattern in the engine.

As it can be noticed by analyzing the reported results, there is no statistical difference between the two models in the score function when the time window length is equal to 20 (391 and 375) and 30 cycles (279 and 262). This difference becomes statistically significant in favor of the proposed model when considering a time window length equal to 10.

Furthermore, reported results have to be compared also looking at the model complexity. Table 5 reports the number of parameters of the models. As it can be observed, the proposed model can achieve comparable performance respect to LSTM with about 86% less parameters.

This last aspect has a strong impact in two aspect: model storage size and training time.

Table 6 shows that the proposed model only requires 141 KB of memory compared to 2.5 MB required by LSTM network resulting 94.36% most efficient in terms of model storage size. Thus, it is possible to store it even if in a constrained hardware, that is usually employed in critical PdM applications.

To understand how the importance of limited memory occupancy impacts industrial contexts, we mention some published work about this topic. Concari and Bettini (2020) defined a PdM strategy on embedded plant and machinery systems, being that embedded has limited computing resources, a trade-off had to be considered between memory occupancy, running speed and accuracy. Instead, Resende et al. (2021) presented TIP4.0, a modular framework for PdM in IoT, where one of the main goals has been to offer a system that can run on hardware with limited computational power and memory.

In Table 7 there is also reported the training time of the models varying the time window length. As shown, the proposed model is 20% faster to train than the LSTM one, although performance differs slightly (about 53[s] on average for all window length tested case). Even if this is a limited improvement, in some real environments where the data to be processed are characterized by high dimensionality, even a small improvement in training time can make a difference, also in being able to ensure the scalability of the system (Gigoni et al., 2019) with respect to dataset size.

Table 8 shows a comparison with the state of the art approaches on this benchmark. Although it is not the best one, our attention-based approach is still comparable with them, especially considering the scoring function. The best results are highlighted in italic.

In Figures 7 and 8 there are reported the prediction errors respectively of the best runs of the proposed and the LSTM models.

More in details, the horizontal axis shows the test engine’s ID in decreasing order with regard to their actual RUL. For example, in the test dataset, the engine with ID equal to 82 has the lowest RUL, and so on. The vertical axis shows RULi′ − RULi, which is identified with “diff” in the plots 7 and 8, indicating the projected RUL for the i-th engine as RULi′.

The error is almost always less than 10 when the actual RUL has low values. However, when the actual RUL is higher, the prediction error increases in both circumstances. One probable reason for this behavior is because when the actual RUL is low, the degradation process has already begun in that engine, and hence this pattern is recognized by the models. However, when the actual RUL is very high, the engine is presumed to be in good condition, and the models cannot detect the distinction between an engine with a true RUL of 80 and one with an actual RUL of 105.

In summary, a number of useful considerations can be deduced from the analysis of all the achieved results:

  1. Our approach obtains very good accuracy performance compared with the best deep approaches in the literature, thus providing an effective solution for RUL estimation;

  2. Our architecture requires reduced training time and limited storage requirements, resulting in an efficient solution that is easily implemented on equipment hardware;

  3. Our model, despite being validated in a limited scenario, shows promising results. This suggests to us that a release in a real IoT scenario could enable the fulfillment of reliability, low latency, privacy and low power requirements (Mohammadi et al. (2018).)

6. Discussion and conclusions

In the Industry 4.0 era, PdM plays an important role and has important managerial and practical implications, because it provides the possibility to reduce maintenance costs, avoid failures and optimize the use of the industrial equipment. Data-driven approaches to PdM have been studied in last years, especially ones adopting ML algorithms. Thanks to these techniques, it is now possible estimate the RUL of the machinery just analyzing related past operational data.

One of most recent trend is using DL models for PdM purposes because of their state-of-the-art results in fields such as computer vision and NLP are easily extensible for PdM task. The first attempts have shown promising results.

However, proposed models often are too complex and not well suited for critical applications. Indeed, in those cases, trained models are hosted in resource constrained hardware, especially in terms of memory size and power consumption. While in general it could be possible to process data in a cloud environment, this is not desirable for such applications requiring high reliability, low latency, data privacy and low energy consumption.

In this work, a light attention-based model has been proposed to deal with the exposed problem. The attention mechanism has gained a lot of popularity in last years for its better capacities in NLP tasks in terms of achieved results and model complexity than recurrent models. For this reason, it has been rearranged in a novel manner in this work to analyze time-series data.

In order to validate the proposal, the well-known Turbofan engine degradation dataset provided by NASA has been used. In addition to making a comparison with the best latest methods on this dataset in the literature, a spatial and temporal complexity comparison with a standard LSTM model was also made. The results show there is no significant difference in terms of RMSE and a PHM scoring function with such a recurrent model. However, the proposed model has far fewer parameters, its storage size is much lower than the LSTM’s one and it is also faster in the training stage. A trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness was thus achieved, which is of paramount importance in industrial contexts where the relationship between performance obtained and resources allocated is to be optimized (Chen et al., 2021; Markiewicz et al., 2019). In addition, the overall accuracy performances are comparable with the best techniques of the literature.

Summarizing, the achieved experimental results showed how the proposed approach enables it to meet the requirements of modern embedded AI applications, with obvious benefits for smart manufacturing systems where the requirements of reliability, low latency, privacy and low power are imperative and important implications from a management point of view in order to optimize the operation of a production line.

Possible future works could concern the further investigation of the attention mechanism applied to different PdM applications.

Moreover, it would be interesting to inspect what actually the model learns (i.e. gives more attention) in order to provide a sort of explanations using explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) tools.

Figures

Proposed AI architecture

Figure 1

Proposed AI architecture

Multi-head attention

Figure 2

Multi-head attention

Features plot of the first engine

Figure 3

Features plot of the first engine

Linear and Piece-wise linear degradation model

Figure 4

Linear and Piece-wise linear degradation model

Time windows creation

Figure 5

Time windows creation

Scoring function

Figure 6

Scoring function

Best proposed model’s prediction errors

Figuer 7

Best proposed model’s prediction errors

Best LSTM model’s prediction errors

Figure 8

Best LSTM model’s prediction errors

A summary of the most recent papers regarding deep learning models for predictive maintenance

ReferenceApplication domainDL approachOutput of the modelDataset
Chen et al. (2019)AutomobileAE + DNNEstimation of TBF of an automobilePrivate
Wang et al. (2020)Railway Power EquipmentLSTM with residual connectionsPrediction of the next failure timePrivate
Kiangala and Wang (2020)Conveyor MotorGAF + CNNA class corresponding to: No Fault, Minor Fault and Critical FaultPrivate
Wu et al. (2020)Motor BearingLSTMHealth StatusNASA Bearing Dataset
Zare and Ayati (2021)Wind TurbineTexture Signal Images + Multichannel CNNHealth Status or a specific faultSynthetic
Li et al. (2019)Rotating MachineSAE + LSTM/Private
Chen et al. (2020)Rolling BearingCNN + Bid. GRU + Attention mechanismRULPrivate
Garcia et al. (2020)HelicopterTime-series imaging + CAEAnomaly detectionAirbus
Martínez-Arellano et al. (2019)Milling Machine CutterGAF + CNNTool wear classMilling Machine Dataset (PHM10)
Pinedo-Sanchez et al. (2020)Rolling BearingGS + CNNTool wear classNASA Bearing Dataset
Lu et al. (2020)Hard DiskCNN-LSTMA class indicating whether or not an HDD is going to failHDD Dataset
Yang et al. (2020)Hard DiskLSTMA class indicating whether or not an HDD is going to failZTE’s disk dataset
De Santo et al. (2022)Hard DiskLSTMA class representing the health state of the HDDHDD Backblaze dataset
Purohit et al. (2019)Industrial equipmentAutoencoderAnomaly detectionMIMII Dataset
Ferraro et al. (2020)Hard DiskGAF + CNNA class representing the health state of the HDDHDD Backblaze dataset

A summary of the most recent papers regarding NASA turbofan engine dataset

RefYearDeep learning (DL) approach
Aydemir and Acar (2020)2020Anomaly triggered long short-term memory (LSTM)
Listou Ellefsen et al. (2019)2019Restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) + long short-term memory (LSTM)
Ragab et al. (2021)2020Long short-term memory (LSTM) with attention
Al-Dulaimi et al. (2019)2019Long short-term memory (LSTM) + convolutional neural network (CNN)
Falcon et al. (2020)2020Multi-head attention (MHA) + LSTM + CNN + neural turing machine (NTM)
Al-Dulaimi et al. (2020)2020Noisy bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) + CNN

Performance metrics of the proposed model varying the time window length

TW [cycles]RMSEScore
1018.92 ± 0.261,290 ± 42
2014.40 ± 0.21391 ± 17
3013.50 ± 0. 30279 ± 23

Performance metrics of the LSTM network varying the time window length

TW [cycles]RMSEScore
1019.73 ± 0.461,521 ± 44
2014.76 ± 0.28375 ± 37
3013.11 ± 0. 36262 ± 20

Number of parameters comparison

TW [cycles]Proposed approachStandard LSTM
1028,233204,929
2028,373204,929
3028,513204,929

Models’ storage size

Proposed approachStandard LSTM
141 KB2.5 MB

Comparison of training times by varying the time window (TW) between proposed model and LSTM network

TW [cycles]Proposed approachStandard LSTM
10217.68 ± 4.04 [s]272.54 ± 3.81 [s]
20235.08 ± 1.69 [s]290.21 ± 2.83 [s]
30273.34 ± 2.99 [s]323.67 ± 16.50 [s]

Comparison with state-of-the-art approaches

AuthorsDL approachRMSEScore
Al-Dulaimi et al. (2020)Noisy BLSTM + CNN11.36 ± 0.09226 ± 3
Ragab et al. (2021)LSTM with attention11.44263
Listou Ellefsen et al. (2019)RBM + LSTM12.10251
Al-Dulaimi et al. (2019)LSTM + CNN12.22 ± 0.04288 ± 4
He (2019)CNN + LSTM12.46535
Standard LSTMLSTM13.11 ± 0.36262 ± 20
Proposed approachAttention-based13.50 ± 0.30279 ± 23
Aydemir and Acar (2020)Anomaly triggered LSTM17.63424
Falcon et al. (2020)MHA + LSTM + CNN + NTM/275

Note

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Corresponding author

Giancarlo Sperlì can be contacted at: giancarlo.sperli@unina.it

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