Validation of the work-related age-based stereotypes (WAS) scale

Justin Marcus (Department of Psychology, Ozyegin University, Istanbul, Turkey)
Barbara Ann Fritzsche (Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States)
Huy Le (Department of Management, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA)
Michael Dennis Reeves (Shaker, Cleveland, Ohio, United States)

Journal of Managerial Psychology

ISSN: 0268-3946

Publication date: 4 July 2016



The purpose of this paper is to focus on developing and validating a multidimensional measure of work-related age-based stereotypes (WAS) scale.


Based upon a review of the literature, a three-dimensional stereotype content model including both negative (incompetence, inadaptability) and positive (warmth) stereotypes of older workers was created. Construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity for the WAS scale were examined across three independent samples constituting both lab-based experimental studies and a field-based survey (total n=1,245).


Across all samples, the WAS evidenced good construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity.


As evidenced by a review of the literature, the WAS is unique in that it measures both negative and positive stereotypes of older workers. Implications for research are discussed.



Marcus, J., Fritzsche, B., Le, H. and Reeves, M. (2016), "Validation of the work-related age-based stereotypes (WAS) scale", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 31 No. 5, pp. 989-1004.

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