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Self-reflection as a mediator between self-efficacy and well-being

Inge van Seggelen - Damen (Department of Psychology, Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, Netherlands)
Karen van Dam (Department of Psychology, Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, Netherlands)

Journal of Managerial Psychology

ISSN: 0268-3946

Article publication date: 8 February 2016




How does self-efficacy affect employee well-being? The purpose of this paper is to increase insight in the underlying process between employee self-efficacy and well-being at work (i.e. emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction) by investigating the mediating role of employees’ engagement in reflection and rumination.


A representative sample of the Dutch working population (n=506) filled out an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the measurement model and research model.


As predicted, self-efficacy was significantly related to emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Rumination mediated the self-efficacy-exhaustion relationship. Reflection did not serve as a mediator; although reflection was predicted by self-efficacy, it was unrelated to exhaustion and job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This cross-sectional study was restricted to self-report measures. Longitudinal research is needed to validate the findings and to further investigate the relationship between reflection and rumination.

Practical implications

Organizations might try to support their employees’ well-being through interventions that strengthen employees’ self-efficacy, and prevent or decrease rumination.


This study increases the understanding of the role of reflection and rumination at work. The findings indicate that self-reflection can have positive as well as negative outcomes.



Seggelen - Damen, I.v. and Dam, K.v. (2016), "Self-reflection as a mediator between self-efficacy and well-being", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 18-33.



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