To read this content please select one of the options below:

Translation and adaption of short version of IQCODE into Hausa and its psychometric evaluation among outpatients older adults

Tolulope Adeniji (Department of Physiotherapy, Federal Medical Centre, Nguru, Nigeria)
Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi (Department of Physiotherapy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria)

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice

ISSN: 1755-6228

Article publication date: 11 October 2021

Issue publication date: 28 April 2022




This study aims at translating and adapting a common and widely used proxy rated cognitive screening tool – Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) into Hausa language and also to evaluate the instrument’s psychometric properties.


IQCODE was translated and adapted using a qualitative process involving experts and the adapted version was then evaluated against a gold standard (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder V criteria for neurocognitive disorders) with older adults subjects (N = 100), while its reliability (internal consistency) was also evaluated. Descriptive statistics of mean and frequencies, and inferential statistic of receiver operating curve analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used for data analysis at an alpha level set at 0.05.


The Hausa IQCODE has a sensitivity value of 73.3%, specificity value of 71.8% and optimal cut-off values of between 3.2 and 3.3. For his adapted instrument the area under the Curve (AUC) curve is 0.79 (95% CI: 0.663–0.919; std. err: 0.066; P = 0.000), and Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.819 was obtained indicating that the adapted instrument has good internal consistency.

Research limitations/implications

The adapted IQCODE is a valid and reliable proxy based cognitive screening tool for the older adult Hausa speakers in Maiduguri. However, clinician and researcher might want to consider different optimal cut-off points when using this tool to screen or to monitor cognitive changes among older adults.


This research paper translated and adapted Hausa IQCODE into Hausa language. And it gives information on the validity and reliability of the adapted tool alongside with new optimal cut-off for cognitive screening by proxy among older adult patients in Nigeria.



The authors thank Professor Yakub Nyandaiti of Department of Medicine, Dr Mohammed S. Jidda of Department of Psychiatry, Dr Ruth Iganus of Department of Medical Sociology, Lawan A. Saleh and Mohammed Bedu of Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria and Mr Tukur Akilu of Department of Nursing State Specialist Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria, for their service as reviewer and member of the expert committee.


Adeniji, T. and Oyeyemi, A.Y. (2022), "Translation and adaption of short version of IQCODE into Hausa and its psychometric evaluation among outpatients older adults", The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 218-229.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles