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The relationship between intellectual capital and employees' productivity: evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council

Amina Buallay (Ahlia University, Manama, Bahrain)
Ala’a Adden Abuhommous (Mutah University, Karak, Jordan)
Gagan Kukreja (Ahlia University, Manama, Bahrain)

Journal of Management Development

ISSN: 0262-1711

Article publication date: 25 August 2020

Issue publication date: 12 October 2021




The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and employees' productivity (EP) in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region.


The value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) is used to measure IC performance in 198 firms listed in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain from 2012 to 2014. The pooled-corrected estimation technique is used to estimate a panel regression model with EP as the dependent variable. Firm size and sectors are controlled for in the regression analysis. The independent variable (IC) has been measured using human capital efficiency (HCE), structural capital efficiency and capital employed efficiency (CEE) in order to measure the value of IC.


Based on the VAIC, the authors found that the values of IC investments are mostly generated from investments in human capital. The results of the panel-corrected ordinary least square indicate that VAIC and its individual components are positive and significantly related to variations in employees' productivity. HCE contributed the highest and CEE contributed lowest VAIC.


The originality of this paper is to show the importance of investment in the human capital as a key contributor of firm's performance. Hence, this study encourages firm's leaders and management in the GCC to invest and focus their management/leadership styles on human capital to achieve their goals. To the best of the knowledge of the coauthors, this is the first study which empirically examines the relationship between IC and EP in the GCC region.



Buallay, A., Abuhommous, A.A. and Kukreja, G. (2021), "The relationship between intellectual capital and employees' productivity: evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 40 No. 6, pp. 526-541.



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