To read the full version of this content please select one of the options below:

From LBDQXII to LBDQ50: preferred leader behavior measurement across cultures

Gillian Warner-Soderholm (Department of Communication and Culture, Handelshoyskolen BI, Oslo, Norway)
Inga Minelgaite (Department of Business Studies, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland)
Romie Frederick Littrell (Department of Management, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia) (Centre for Cross Cultural Comparisons, Miami, Florida, USA)

Journal of Management Development

ISSN: 0262-1711

Article publication date: 10 December 2019

Issue publication date: 3 February 2020



The purpose of this paper is to refine and validate the most widely used leader behavior measurement instrument, LBDQXII, into a more parsimonious instrument for assessing cognitive templates of preferred leader behavior across cultures.


The 100-item LBDQXII survey was administered to 6,451 participants from 14 countries; these data were used to refine the survey.


The shorter survey instrument is a valid and reliable tool for assessing preferred leader behavior. Four periods in the LBDQXII “evolution” are identified: emergence, expansion, stagnation and revival.

Research limitations/implications

The new LBDQ50 can be used to collect data across cultures, contributing to both global management development and scholarly studies.

Practical implications

This project corresponds to calls to shorten the well-established leader behavior instrument into a measurement tool that is reliable and valid across cultures and languages. This can be administered by both private and public organizations, contributing to greater effectiveness. Furthermore, it retains its scholarly scope encompassing follower-centric studies of leadership.

Social implications

Leadership processes are found in all aspects of life and can be better understood and improved within and across cultures using the shorter version.


An efficient instrument to measure preferred leadership behavior across and within cultures. The availability of the LBDQ50 will allow practitioners and researchers to advance understanding of preferred leadership behavior as a predictor of organizational effectiveness. Most such instruments are overly-long, which hinders data collection opportunities. This newly developed instrument can lead to better response rates and easier applicability in organizational settings.



This research was funded by Higher School of Economics, Moscow, by the Government of the Russian Federation for the implementation of the Global Competitiveness Program.


Warner-Soderholm, G., Minelgaite, I. and Littrell, R.F. (2020), "From LBDQXII to LBDQ50: preferred leader behavior measurement across cultures", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 39 No. 1, pp. 68-81.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited