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Individual and managerial predictors of the different forms of employee voice

Ela Unler (Department of International Trade and Business, Bahcesehir Universitesi, Istanbul, Turkey)
Sibel Caliskan (Department of Psychology, Istanbul Bilgi Universitesi, Istanbul, Turkey)

Journal of Management Development

ISSN: 0262-1711

Article publication date: 6 August 2019




Analysis of employee voice has focused on the reasons and managerial issues regarding the available environment to speak up. The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of management attitude on employee voice with the mediating effect of individual’s perceived psychological safety (PPS). Besides, the role of job satisfaction (JS) and being individualist/collectivist as moderators over the effect of psychological safety on employee voice are analyzed.


The authors constructed a framework based on Maynes and Podsakoff’s (2014) view that identifies four different types of voice behavior (supportive, constructive, defensive and destructive). In total, 286 questionnaires were collected from employees working in telecommunication industry.


Based on analysis, positive management attitude facilitates supportive and constructive voice (CV) and reduces destructive voice (DESV). PPS mediates the relationship with management attitude and DESV. JS level facilitates supportive CV and reduces DESV. Collectivism level of employees moderates PPS and DESV. Path analysis results showed a similar model for mediation effect of safety, and showed a better model fit and explanation for trust mediation between LMX and supportive, constructive and DESV. Supported assumptions would be discussed-based social exchange theory and signaling theory.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is relatively small which limits the external validity of the findings.

Practical implications

Results revealed the managerial attitude over employee voice through perceived work environment (psychological safety) and trust.


This study is one of the first that integrates not only constructive but also DESV into the model.



The authors certify that the authors have no affiliations with any organization or entity with any financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.


Unler, E. and Caliskan, S. (2019), "Individual and managerial predictors of the different forms of employee voice", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 38 No. 7, pp. 582-603.



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