The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the duration of free trade agreement (FTA) and bilateral investment treaty (BIT) on the foreign direct investment (FDI) flows between OECDs and different level of income countries such as upper- and lower-middle-income countries.
The authors applied the gravity model by adding more variables of interest such as trade openness, export volume, dummy and cumulative variables of FTA and BIT to find out the proper determinants of FDI attraction. Through Hasuman test, the authors find the fixed model is appropriate methodology. Hence, the authors basically use the fixed models to find the effect of the duration of FTA and BIT on FDI flows between different groups of countries.
The main results of the study are briefly summarized briefly as follows. First, the effects of FTA dummy variables and its cumulative variables are greater than those of BIT dummy variables and cumulative variables. If an FTA signifies attracting FDI as well as bilateral trade, and contains an investment agreement provision in it is included in the FTA, it can be seen that the FTA is more effective way of attracting FDI than BIT because FTA is more comprehensive agreement dealing with not only investment issues but also non-investment ones. Second, the BIT effect on FDI is only meaningful when developed countries invest in developing countries. In other words, when a country decides to invest in a developing country with a relatively poor investment environment, whether to enter into a BIT will provide investors with investment stability to gage the investment climate of the host country. Third, the BIT cumulative year effect showed a positive and significant results on FDI inflow and outflow of all cases, unlike the BIT effect. While the fact that BIT cumulative effect has a relatively less positive effect than the BIT dummy effect, implying that BIT effect was evident as time elapsed after fermentation.
The main contribution of this study is that we consider the duration of FTA and BIT explicitly in the model. Previous related studies tried to find out the effects of FTA and BIT on FDI by simply applying dummy variables of them. In this paper, by applying both dummy variables and cumulative variables of FTA and BIT that capture the duration effect, we can deeply understand the effects of national agreements dealing with investment clauses on FDI more dynamically.
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