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Knowledge development in non-fungible tokens (NFT): a scoping review

Abhishek Behl (Management Development Institute Gurgaon, Gurgaon, India)
Vijay Pereira (NEOMA Business School - Reims Campus, Reims, France)
Achint Nigam (BITS Pilani, Pilani, India)
Samuel Wamba (Toulouse Business School, Toulouse, France)
Rahul Sindhwani (IIM Amritsar, Amritsar, India)

Journal of Knowledge Management

ISSN: 1367-3270

Article publication date: 19 May 2023

Issue publication date: 5 January 2024




The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of NFTs in revolutionizing innovation management and information systems. Innovations done by firms are blatantly used by other firms to develop cheap knock-off. This leads to huge economic loses to the firm investing in research and development activities. Firms are in need of trusted, immutable and verifiable means of storing information which cannot be used by others, even if publically available without their consent. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) appear to be one such solution to this problem that has recently attracted a lot of investor interest. Using NFTs the information is tokenized and is stored in a secure manner.


Through this scoping review, the authors investigate the influence of NFTs towards the innovation management from the dual aspects of management and information systems. This scoping review is underpinned by the five-stage framework by Arksey and O’Malley. The five stages of Arksey and O’Malley’s framework were used in this analysis to classify the literature through five stages of identifying the initial research questions; locating relevant studies; study selection; charting the data; and compiling, summarizing and reporting the results.


This study suggests that NFTs on the blockchain have significant potential to revolutionize innovation management and information systems. Theoretical frameworks used in investigating the role of digital tokens in blockchain management are mainly based on contracts, diversity theory, portfolio theory and faking likelihood theory. The study reveals gaps in the literature, particularly in the under-researched areas of behavioural psychology and social psychology theories. The appropriate regulation and regulation authority for different types of digital tokens are required. The study also presents archetypes that represent patterns in the current landscape of blockchain tokens, which have significant potential for future research and practical applications.


This study is unique in its approach to assessing the future of NFTs in the field of innovation and information management. While many existing reviews have focused on describing the progress and development of NFTs in the past, this study takes a forward-looking perspective and projects the future potential of NFTs. This innovative approach allows for a deeper understanding of the potential impact of NFTs in various fields such as entrepreneurship, innovation management and tokenomics. Therefore, this study contributes to the literature on NFTs by providing insights and recommendations for future research and practical applications.



Behl, A., Pereira, V., Nigam, A., Wamba, S. and Sindhwani, R. (2024), "Knowledge development in non-fungible tokens (NFT): a scoping review", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 232-267.



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