Twenty years of the Journal of Knowledge Management: a bibliometric analysis

Magaly Gaviria-Marin (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Barcelona and Associate researcher at the Faculty of Economics and Administration Sciences of Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile)
Jose M. Merigo (Department of Management Control and Information Systems, School of Economics and Business, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile)
Simona Popa (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Catolica San Antonio de Murcia, Murcia, Spain)

Journal of Knowledge Management

ISSN: 1367-3270

Publication date: 3 December 2018

Abstract

Purpose

In 2017, the Journal of Knowledge Management (JKM) celebrates its 20th anniversary. This study aims to show an updated analysis of their publications to provide a general overview of the journal, focusing on a bibliometric analysis of its publications between 1997 and 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology involves two procedures: a performance analysis and a science mapping analysis of JKM. The performance analysis uses a series of bibliometric indicators such as h-index, productivity and citations. This analysis considers different dimensions, including papers, authors, universities and countries. VOSviewer software is used to carry out the mapping of science of JKM, which, based on the concurrence of key words and co-citation points of view, seeks to graphically analyze the structure of the references of this journal.

Findings

There is a positive evolution in the number of publications (although with certain oscillations), which shows a growing interest in publishing in JKM. The USA and the UK lead the publications in this journal, although at a regional level, Europe is the most productive. The low participation of emerging economies in JKM is also observed.

Practical implications

The paper will identify the leading trends in the journal in terms of papers, authors, institutions, countries, journals and keywords. This study is useful for obtaining a quick snapshot of what is happening in the journal.

Originality/value

From the historical record of JKM publications, this study presents an exclusive bibliometric analysis of its publications until 2016 and identifies its main trends.

Keywords

Citation

Gaviria-Marin, M., Merigo, J. and Popa, S. (2018), "Twenty years of the Journal of Knowledge Management: a bibliometric analysis", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 22 No. 8, pp. 1655-1687. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-10-2017-0497

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Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited


1. Introduction

Several researchers already affirmed in the 1960s that knowledge would have a key role in both economic development and enterprise productivity (Drucker, 1968; Polanyi, 1966). Currently, thousands of studies have been developed around this concept. Knowledge management (KM) is one of the most discussed topics and has become a topic of general interest in several disciplines related to management, such as the management of information resources (Nissen et al., 2000), human resources (Rastogi, 2000; Wang and Ariguzo, 2004), entrepreneurship and family business (Centobelli et al., 2017; Scuotto et al., 2017), innovation (Bai and Yu, 2017), international business (Kasper et al., 2013), among others. In addition, KM has captured the attention of professionals who implement its fundamental concepts (Serenko et al., 2011) and of researchers and academics who see the potential of this field to unify various disciplines (Holsapple and Wu, 2008).

As a result of the growing attention and importance generated by KM at both the academic and business levels during the past several decades, the Journal of Knowledge Management (JKM) was introduced in 1997. The JKM is a journal interested in the publication of academic research and practical information dealing with best practices regarding all aspects related to KM in organizations. Likewise, one of its main objectives is to identify innovative KM strategies and theoretical and practical framework concepts that could be implemented in real-world situations. JKM publications include quantitative and qualitative research that through extensive studies and/or academic case studies in companies, government agencies and other organizations, show how to develop strategies, tools, techniques and technologies to successfully apply KM in organizations (Soto-Acosta and Cegarra-Navarro, 2016). In addition, the journal is devoted to analyzing KM as a firm capability capable of enhancing organizational learning and innovation (Del Giudice and Della Peruta, 2016; Martinez-Conesa et al., 2017).

The first issue of the JKM was published in 1997 under the direction of the founding editor Dr Rory Chase. Professor Dr Elias G. Carayannis also served as the editor in chief, and Professor Dr Manlio del Guidice was recently appointed as the current editor in chief. Since its early beginnings and under the direction of the different editors, the JKM has had remarkable growth and development, publishing more than 100 issues, 19 of which have been special issues. In addition, the JKM has been indexed in all the major bibliographic databases, including Scopus, since 1997, and more recently and importantly, since 2011, it has been indexed by the Web of Science’s Journal Citation Report (JCR). The JKM’s JCR impact factor (IF, hereafter) has been growing, and in 2016, it reached its highest IF, as it was first indexed in the Web of Science, being ranked 82nd of 193 journals in the subject category of management. This growth has allowed the JKM to position itself as the main journal in the field of KM (Serenko and Bontis, 2017).

In 2016, JKM celebrates its 20th anniversary. In these instances, it is common to develop commemorative activities that include the organization of an editorial (Barley, 2016), a review (Van Fleet, 2006) or a special issue (Meyer and Winer, 2014). Schwert (1993) emphasizes the importance of making a bibliometric description of the journal because it provides general historical results that allow the development of a critical evaluation of its impact and evolution. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to offer a bibliometric analysis of the JKM, which will enable us to observe in detail the evolution of its scientific publications. This will allow us to answer the following questions:

Q1.

What are the total number of publications in JKM?

Q2.

What are the core JKM articles?

Q3.

Who are the main researchers, universities and countries in JKM?

Q4.

What are the core journals used in JKM?

Q5.

What is the affiliations of researchers?

Q6.

What are the topics main in articles of JKM?

Q7.

What are the structural networks among the actors who publish in JKM?

To achieve this goal and answer the previous questions, this work is based on two bibliometric procedures that include a performance analysis and a scientific mapping analysis. The first one is based on the analysis of productivity and influence indicators, such as the number of documents published and citations. Although the h-index is also used, which is a composite indicator that seeks to balance the productivity and influence of scientific actors (Hirsch, 2005). The second of them – the science mapping analysis – is carried out through the VOSviewer software (van Eck and Waltman, 2010), which includes bibliographic coupling (Kessler, 1963), co-citation analysis (Small, 1973), citation, co-authorship and co-occurrence of keywords. This type of analysis is novel and important as it has not been used previously in the JKM, and it will give a comprehensive overview of the journal’s main research trends.

The specific analysis of journals through bibliometric methodologies is currently gaining attention among scientific journals. In fact, recently, several bibliometric studies analyzing the specific repositories of several journals have been published. For example, Technovation (García-Merino et al., 2006) and Knowledge-Based Systems (Cobo et al., 2015) published a bibliometric analysis for their 25th anniversary. Similarly, Knowledge Management Research and Practice did so for its 10th anniversary (Walter and Ribière, 2013). Other journals, such as International Journal of Intelligent Systems (Merigó et al., 2017) and Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing (Valenzuela et al., 2017), included bibliometric studies for their 13th anniversary, while still others, such as Computers and Industrial Engineering (Cancino et al., 2017) and European Journal of Operational Research (Laengle et al., 2017), did so for their 40th anniversary. Thus, many research journals are celebrating their anniversaries by publishing bibliometric analyses to present an overview of their research trends and more influential publications.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, this work presents the methodology. Section 3 presents the results of the bibliometric analysis. Section 4 shows the graphical analysis. Finally, in Section 5, the article analyses the conclusions and limitations of the study.

2. Methodology

Several years ago, data collection and bibliometric analysis processes were performed manually (Garfield, 1955). However, currently, these processes have been facilitated thanks to the development of information and communication technologies (Merigó et al., 2015a). These technologies have also contributed to the development of some methodologies for the analysis of scientific databases, such as scientometrics (Pritchard, 1969), bibliometrics (Yoon and Lee, 2012), and/or the quantitative study of library materials (Bonilla et al., 2015; Broadus, 1987; Small, 1973).

Bibliometrics help to explore, organize and analyze large amounts of data (Daim et al., 2006). According to Albort-Morant et al. (2017), the bibliometric analyses will make it possible to know the past, understand the advances of the investigations, although, at the same time, allows the development of future lines of research through its indicators (Cadavid-Higuita et al., 2012). The above particularities have promoted the use of bibliometrics in different disciplines. In fact, there are several areas of business and management that have particularly been studied from this perspective, such as management (Podsakoff et al., 2008), social entrepreneurship (Rey-Martí et al., 2016), international entrepreneurship (Baier-Fuentes et al., 2018), business incubator (Albort-Morant and Ribeiro-Soriano, 2016) or knowledge management (Gaviria-Marin et al., 2018), among several others. In addition, this methodology has been applied to other research areas, such as education (Diem and Wolter, 2013) and medicine (Franks et al., 2006). Moreover, to provide an overview of their publications, several journals have recently decided to apply this methodology. Among others, we can mention the Journal of Business Research (Merigó et al., 2015b), the European Journal of Marketing (Martínez-López et al., 2018), the International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management (Ellinger and Chapman, 2016), the International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems (Wang et al., 2018) or Information Sciences (Merigó et al., 2018).

Several methodologies are used in bibliometric analysis to visualize the qualitative and quantitative changes in a specific research field. For example, Durieux and Gevenois (2010), mention that bibliometrics involves:

  • quantity indicators, which measure productivity;

  • quality indicators, which measure the impact; and

  • structural indicators, which measure the connections between the various scientific actors.

Likewise, Cobo et al. (2011), notes that bibliometrics usually includes two procedures: performance analysis and science mapping analysis. The first of these procedures aims to evaluate different groups of scientific actors, such as countries, universities and authors, by measuring the productivity and impact of their scientific activity. The science mapping analysis focuses on showing the structural and dynamic patterns of scientific research (Börner et al., 2003). According to Barabási et al (2002), the structural indicators allow to observe the formation and evolution of the relations between the diverse actors of a determined scientific body. In summary, bibliometrics has the ability to establish a complete profile of a specific field of study or journal.

In this study, we show an overview of JKM trends, through a bibliometric analysis that includes performance analysis and science mapping. In the performance analysis, included indicators that measure both scientific productivity and the influence of a field of knowledge are included (Garfield, 1955). Note that this is consistent with that described by Durieux and Gevenois (2010). Specifically, we used the number of publications, the number of citations and some thresholds of citations, among other related indicators (Merigó, 2015a, 2015b). In addition, we use the h-index that combines into a single indicator of the number of publications and the number of citations[1]. This indicator has become popular among researchers given its ease of calculation and interpretation (Thelwall, 2008). In this sense, Vanclay (2007) points out that the h-index is a robust indicator that is insensitive to a set of poorly cited papers, and therefore represents quite well the performance of a scientific field. In this manner, for an analysis unit that has an h-index equal to N, it means that it has N documents cited at least N times (Hirsch, 2005). For example, if an author has an h-index of 20, then the author has 20 documents that received at least 20 citations. In summary, keep in mind that the indicators described are popular among researchers.

This work also presents a science mapping analysis of the JKM bibliographic material. This type of analysis is conducted by using various types of software. Among them we can mention, for example, CitNetExplorer (van Eck and Waltman, 2014), SciMAT (Cobo et al., 2012), Bibexcel (Persson et al., 2009), CiteSpace (Chen, 2006) or VOSviewer (van Eck and Waltman, 2010). In this study, VOSviewer software was used. This software combines visualization techniques and clustering, which enables the completion of different analyses: bibliographic coupling (Kessler, 1963), co-citation (Small, 1973) and co-occurrence of key words. Bibliographic coupling occurs when two documents cite the same third article; co-citation measures the most cited documents by taking into account when two documents receive a citation of the same third work, whereas co-occurrence of keywords or a co-occurrence network refers to the group of keywords that co-occur in at least two different articles over a period of time with the aim of analyzing the most used keywords in the documents (Li et al., 2017). In addition, in some studies, co-citation and co-occurrence analysis are used in a longitudinal framework to analyze and follow the evolution of a field of research over consecutive periods of time (Garfield, 1994). Finally, it is important to point that there are other types of analyses, such as the analysis of co-words, which maps the force of association between the elements of information in the textual data, which can be thematic, semantic, conceptual or cognitive (Callon et al., 1983).

Bibliographic data may be obtained from various databases, including SciELO, Google Scholar, Scopus or Web of Science (WoS), since they have the capacity to compile large-scale data and produce statistics based on bibliometric indicators (Archambault et al., 2009). Recently, Scopus has become a good alternative to WoS (Vieira and Gomes, 2009), as it has been designed for bibliographic searches and analysis of citations (Meho and Yang, 2007), enabling it to perform the same search tasks as WoS. In fact, Scopus contains over 69 million records, including approximately 22,000 journals, of which almost 3,500 are freely accessible, as well as over 560 book series, 280 business journals, over 150,000 books and nearly 8 million conference papers pertaining to 100,000 worldwide events (Scopus, 2017). In addition, some researchers have noted that the strength of this database is related to its extensive coverage regarding social sciences research (Mongeon and Paul-Hus, 2016). Although these reasons seem to be sufficient to work with only Scopus references, the process of searching JKM records was performed using both WoS and Scopus databases. However, we realized that WoS only contains JKM records since the year 2011, while Scopus, in contrast, contained bibliographic records since the journal’s creation in 1997. Therefore, the data used in this study were mainly obtained from the Scopus database.

Once we defined the database, it was considered Journal of Knowledge Management as the only keyword, to obtain the bibliographic records of JKM. Additionally, a publication period between 1997 and 2016 and only articles, reviews, notes and letters were included to focus on scientific contributions (Merigó et al., 2016). As a result of this process, the search query yielded a sample of 1068 documents.

3. Results

3.1 Performance analysis

3.1.1 Publication and citation structure of Journal of Knowledge Management.

The JKM celebrates 20 years of publishing documents related to all aspects of KM in organizations. The journal was launched in 1997 and presented four issues in its first volume. In subsequent years, the number of issues per volume was variable. However, since 2004, the JKM has been publishing six issues per volume annually. Throughout its existence, the JKM has followed the methodology of peer-reviewed evaluation for its research output. These editorial policies have allowed it to position itself as the leading journal in the field of knowledge management, also increasing the number of publications (see Figure 1).

In addition, Table I shows the JKM’s progress in relation to the annual and cumulative productivity of the papers and published issues. Additionally, this table makes a comparison of productivity between the two decades of its existence. It is observed that during the first decade (1997-2006), 415 documents were published, while in the second decade (2007-2016), the output was 653 documents. This difference represents an increase of 238 publications (22.4 per cent). It can be observed that the years 2008 and 2009 represent the peak of JKM publications, with more than 70 articles, whereas the year 2016 represents an important moment for the journal, as it exceeded 1,000 publications. In total, 20 volumes and 106 numbers containing 1,068 documents (964 articles, 104 reviews) have been published in the JKM thus far. Note that Table I indicates the amount of issues with the respective number of papers by each of them.

The JKM has a high number of citations, reaching a total of 23,669 citations (see Table II). In this sense, the year 2005 is one of the most important for several reasons. First, the JKM obtained the maximum number of cites per year in 2005, with 3,359 citations. This figure corresponds to 14.2 per cent of the journal’s total number of citations. Second, as a consequence, the citations per paper (TC/TP) of the journal in that year accounted for 56,9. Third, the highest h-index in the history of the JKM (h-index = 32) was reached in 2005. Remember that the h-index seeks to represent in a single indicator both the productivity and influence of a scientific actor in a given scientific field (Alonso et al., 2009). In the JKM case, the interpretation of the h-index, corresponding to the year 2005, means that 32 papers published that year received at least 32 citations. Moreover, 2005 is the first year that the JKM published two special issues. With regard to the citation threshold for the total published papers, 120 documents (11.23 per cent) received at least 50 citations. Additionally, 460 documents (43 per cent) achieved between 10 and 49 citations, while 425 documents (39.8 per cent) obtained between 1 and 9 citations. Finally, 63 documents (5.9 per cent) did not receive citations. it is noteworthy that 23 of these documents (2.2 per cent) correspond to recently published documents in 2016.

Table III explains in detail the number of authors per document and year published in the JKM. Note that there is a positive trend towards collaboration between researchers who publish in the JKM (see ACR indicator). In the final row, the average number of authors per paper is indicated. Note that 31.6 per cent of the published documents are of individual authorship. It is also observed that the normal trend for this journal is that documents are written by two or three co-authors (33.9 per cent and 23.9 per cent, respectively).

Usually, the number of citations is used to provide an overview of the most influential research. The number of citations represents the popularity and influence of each article in the scientific community (Merigó et al., 2017). However, it should be mentioned that this analysis may have some biases since the motivations for citing a document are diverse (Krampen et al., 2007). Table IV shows the 50 most cited JKM publications. Note that in case of a tie in the number of citations, the most recent document appears first.

The most cited work of the JKM is the one written by Ardichvili, Page and Wentling (2003), which was cited more than 600 times. Another important issue is that the three items best positioned in this ranking focus on barriers to sharing knowledge in different organizational contexts. For example, Ardichvili et al. (2003) develop an empirical study focused on personal motivations to participate in a virtual organizational environment. McDermott and O’Dell (2001) empirically study organizational culture as one of the barriers to the exchange of knowledge. Finally, Riege (2005) develops a literature review on the barriers to sharing knowledge, classifying them as individual, organizational and technological. Taking into account the potential of knowledge management to unify diverse areas of knowledge (Holsapple and Wu, 2008), the remaining articles of this list are developed in the intersection with diverse thematic such as the networks, the TICs, the innovation, among others.

Another aspect to highlight in this ranking is that there are six authors who have at least two documents. These six researchers are as follows: Ardichvili, Wentling, Darroch, Wong, Aspinwall and Bhatt. Of these authors, Ardichvili and Wentling are noted for having two documents together within the 20 most cited articles of the JKM. Likewise, Darroch and Bhatt stand out as independent authors possessing two articles among the 50 most cited publications.

It is also important to mention the 50 documents most cited by documents published in the JKM (see Table V). The list contains 44 articles and six books. Of the first three positions on this list, two correspond to books written by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) and Davenport and Prusak (1998). The publications of these authors are considered seminal works in the field of KM. In this list, Nonaka has authored or co-authored five documents. This list also reveals the large number of works related to KM’s theoretical, conceptual and practical aspects.

Another interesting analysis is to identify who cites the JKM. Table VI reports the fifty journals with the largest number of articles citing JKM publications. Notice that the only requirement is having a paper with at least one citation referring to the JKM, although the journal can be cited several times. This list is also organized by quinquennium.

In this list it is observed that the first researchers to publish in JKM (Q1), include references from the Journal of Intellectual Capital, Learning Organization, Decision Support Systems, Journal of Workplace Learning and Journal of Information Science. In the following periods, there is an increase of new journals citing JKM, mainly from fields such as Knowledge Management, Business Management and Computer Systems. Another relevant aspect is that the JKM reaches the highest position with an increasing trend of self-cites over time. This is quite logical since journals often quote themselves. The journal that gives the second most citations to the JKM is “Knowledge Management Research and Practice”. Finally, there is a positive trend of new journals citing the JKM.

Moving forward in this perspective, Table VII presents the number of articles that mention JKM according to the year, author, university and country. Note that, although they are presented in a single table, the data must be analyzed independently according to each analysis unit (year, author, university and country).

From the beginning of JKM (1997) until 2016, 7050 articles have cited JKM. Keep in mind that when a scientific actor cites some article published in JKM, he is citing JKM. In the table, note that more than 50 per cent of the articles that have been cited to JKM have done so in the past four years. This shows the growing influence achieved by JKM. During the period under review, the lead author in citing JKM is Bontis with 41 of his documents. Likewise, a great diversity of universities around the world has quoted JKM. Of these universities, the University of Technology Malaysia stands out for citing 73 JKM documents. Finally, as expected, the USA and the UK are the two countries with the highest number of documents citing JKM publications.

3.1.2 Main authors, institutions and countries.

In this section an analysis of data related to the main authors, institutions and countries that publish in the JKM is presented.

Table VIII presents the number of publications of the most productive authors in the JKM and also shows its general productivity in academic journals. To observe the performance of these authors, the h-index of each author is included, along with the total number of publications, the number of citations, among other bibliometric indicators. This table also gives information on the tendency of authors to publish individually (SA). Note in case of a tie in productivity (TP), the number of citations per author is taken into account.

Table VIII indicates that the most productive authors in the JKM (TP) are Serenko, with 12 papers, followed by Bontis, with 11 papers. However, it should be noted that Bontis is a productive author in other journals as well and is a highly cited author. The other interesting fact is that Serenko and Bontis are researchers who usually publish together. In fact, they have published jointly on 8 occasions so far. A general overview of their work shows a preference for research in areas such as KM, intellectual capital and scientometrics methodologies, among others. Additionally, regarding cited authors (TC), Andreas Riege is the most cited author in the list, with 586 citations, followed by Kuan Yew Wong, with 453 and Serenko and Bontis, with more than 350 citations each.

Another interesting issue is the analysis of the more influential and productive universities and institutions publishing in the JKM. With this objective in mind, Table IX indicates the most productive universities within the journal. This table also presents other indicators such as the year they began publishing in the JKM (YFP), total citations (TC), the h-index and citation thresholds. Additionally, it shows the ranking of the university in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and in the Quacquarelli and Symonds (QS) university ranking.

The results revealed that the most productive universities in the JKM are Cranfield University, with 14 papers and the Technologic Institute of Monterrey, with 13 papers. Note that both universities commenced publishing in the journal from the first year the journal was launched. It is also noteworthy that the Technologic Institute of Monterrey is one of the two Latin American university in this ranking. At the regional level, European universities are the most productive in the JKM, followed by those of Oceania, America and Asia. Moreover, among the universities with more citations (TC) are Griffith University, with 846 citations, the Cranfield University, with 406 citations and the University of Lakehead, with 402 citations. Although it depends on many variables, it is likely that these results are obviously obtained by the human capital hired by the universities and the networks they generate. For example, the documents of Andreas Riege, in Griffith U. or Alexander Serenko, in Lakehead U., have helped to position their universities as the most influential institutions in JKM. When considering the h-index, Lakehead University and Nanyang University of Technology are the best positioned universities. It should also be noted that the Campania University Luigi Vanvitelly is in 33rd place and is the institution that most recently started to publish in the JKM (2012). Finally, it is observed that only 24 per cent of universities are ranked in the top 300 of the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU). In this same ranking stand, Stanford University and the University of Manchester are within the Top 50.

To continue characterizing the JKM, Table X shows the most productive and influential countries that normally, through their institutions and researchers, publish in the journal. The indicators that are presented by country are the total number of papers (TP), total number of citations (TC) and the h-index (H) and the productivity of each country during the four quinquenniums of the journal’s existence. Finally, Table X displays the quantity of papers and citations per million inhabitants. Note that the listing is organized by each country’s productivity, though in the case of a tie in productivity, the number of citations is presented.

According to the results presented in Table X, there is great diversity of countries that publish in the JKM. It should be noted that the scientific productivity of countries can vary depending on economic and/or political factors, among others (Gkypali et al., 2016; Ynalvez and Shrum, 2010). The USA, for example, is the country with the most investment in R&D. Therefore, it is not surprising that it leads the ranking of the most productive countries in JKM, with 229 papers. It is followed by the UK with 163 papers. It should also be noted that these countries occupy the most influential positions with an h-index of 39 and 34, respectively. In addition, these two countries have the largest number of papers in the top 50 most cited articles in the journal. Another interesting fact is that both the USA and the UK have had a high participation rate since the early years of the JKM. However, it is observed that both countries have significantly decreased their productivity in the final period. For example, the USA decreased 47 per cent of its productivity in the past five years (Q4). This is explained by the outstanding productivity of countries such as France, Italy, Malaysia and China, among others. Although it could also be explained by the internationalization of JKM. Finally, note that one of the most productive countries by inhabitant in the JKM is Liechtenstein, although this result is less significant given the population size of this country. Other countries highlighted in this regard are Iceland, Finland and New Zealand.

3.2 Science mapping analysis of Journal of Knowledge Management

The previous section presented some performance indicators of the JKM. To continue characterizing the JKM, this section carries out a science mapping analysis with the bibliographic material. This methodology tries to provide a spatial representation of how the different scientific actors of a dynamically changing field of knowledge relate to each other (Small, 1997). In addition it can be used as a complementary approach to bibliometric performance indicators (Cobo et al., 2012). Therefore, to obtain a more complete and complementary image of the results previously shown, the graphic mapping of the main scientific actors that publish in JKM are presented in this section.

To achieve this goal, this work uses VOSviewer software (van Eck and Waltman, 2010), which visualizes the bibliographic material through bibliographic coupling (Kessler, 1963, 1965), co-occurrence of keywords (Callon et al., 1983), and the analysis of citations and co-citations (Small, 1973). Note that the bibliographic coupling analyzes the papers they cite (Cobo et al., 2011). This occurs when two papers published in a journal cite the same third paper. In the figure, these two papers appear connected but not the third unless they also have a significant degree of bibliographic linkage through other papers. Therefore, for the purposes of this research, the bibliographic coupling will represent the highest productivity in JKM and shows how this research is connected with others (Merigó et al., 2016). On the other hand, the shared citations or co-citations study the cited papers and occur when two papers receive a citation by a third paper that has been published. The figure shows the two papers that have been cited by the article published in the journal but not the latter article. In the case of this study, the co-citation shows the most cited studies in JKM and their connections. The analysis of citations represents the sum of the citations that one scientific actor grants to another and vice versa. Finally, the generated maps are interpreted by observing the frequency, size and centrality of the analyzed factors.

We start this science mapping by referring to co-citation in the JKM. Remember that the purpose of co-citation is to detect when two documents from two different journals receive a citation of the same document from a third journal. The results in Figure 2 are presented with a threshold of 30 citations and the 100 most representative co-citation connections.

According to Figure 2, four clusters are visualized that distinguish the relationships of the journals most cited by JKM documents. Each of these clusters have a significant number of nodes. Note that JKM is the most cited magazine and has the largest network. These results are frequent in the analysis of journal co-citations since authors usually cite articles from the same source. Organization Science and Strategic Management Journal are equally well cited. Also note that most of the journals correspond to the management area and, to a lesser extent, to other areas of business, strategy and social sciences, such as information systems, human resources and sociology. This not only shows the interest of the different areas of business management in the KM field but also highlights the breadth of topics related to businesses that are published and cited in JKM.

To complement the analysis of Figure 2, Table XI presents the fifty most cited journals or books by documents published in the JKM. This table also presents the global position of the journals along with the temporal evolution of these during the two decades of JKM’s existence.

Another important issue is the analysis of the co-citation of authors most cited in the JKM. Figure 3 presents the data with a threshold of 50 citations and 100 co-citation connections among authors.

The results included in Figure 3 are similar to those presented in Table V, although this figure focuses on the most cited authors. Additionally, this figure sheds light on the connections network of authors. According to this, Nonaka has the most extensive network. This author is also the most cited in the JKM, followed by Takeuchi, von Krog and Davenport, among others. In the 20 years of JKM, these authors have become the core of the journal’s publications. Although it should also be mentioned that several of its documents are considered fundamental in the KM field. Finally, several researchers who have begun to generate research networks are observed in the periphery of the figure.

Another interesting topic to analyze and contrast with the results of the bibliometric performance analysis is the bibliographic coupling of the countries that publish in the journal. This will allow for the identification of the most productive countries that tend to use the same literature. Figure 4 shows the results considering a minimum threshold of five papers and the 50 most representative bibliographic link connections.

The results are consistent with what is shown in Table X. The figure shows how each one of the countries connects with others. It is also possible to clearly observe that the USA and the UK form two important nuclei of the journal. Their centrality and closeness indicate that they work on similar topics, which have influenced the development of documents from various countries, such as Australia, Spain, Italy, among others.

Similar to the previous analysis, Figure 5 shows the citations made between countries that have published in the JKM. The network shown in this figure represents the countries that are citing each other. In this sense, citations represent the sum between the citations that country A cites to country B and vice versa. In general, it is observed that the USA, the UK and Australia have an intense network of citations among them.

Figure 6 shows co-authorship relations between countries. Note that this figure shows the co-authorship relationships between the countries that publish in JKM. The results show that there is extensive collaboration between the UK and Australia. This finding could be explained by the historical links between Australia and the UK. Although the USA also has an extensive network of co-authorship with several other countries in the world. While it is true that an intense connection between the countries of the same region would be normal, Figure 6 shows in general, a lack of intensity of these relationships between countries, such as European or Latin American.

The following figures analyze the co-occurrence of keywords presented in JKM publications. It is important to remember that keywords are assigned by the authors and that the co-occurrence of keywords shows the frequency with which keywords appear next to others in published documents. Considering a wide perspective, Figure 7 presents the most used keywords and their distinct relationships in the documents published in the JKM. The size of the circles, which represent a keyword, are larger according to the relevance of this word in JKM. The results of Figure 7 are presented with a threshold of five occurrences and the top one hundred most frequent co-occurrences.

It is observed that the JKM uses a great variety of keywords. However, it is clearly observed that the words “Knowledge Management” are at the center of the figure and have the highest co-occurrence index in the JKM. Certainly, this result can be explained by the scientific domain of the journal. In addition, in the perimeter of the Figure there are other keywords that represent the amplitude of the emerging topics that have been published in JKM. It is expected, therefore, that JKM will promote research on these issues to continue explaining the different phenomena that affect the KM field.

Alternatively, Figures 8 and 9 present a longitudinal analysis of the concurrency of keywords in each of the decades of existence of the JKM. In performing this analysis, it is possible to identify the trends in different topics that have been published during the existence of the JKM. Likewise, this procedure prevents the overlapping of keywords.

Figure 8 presents the co-occurrence of keywords during the first decade of the JKM (1997-2006).

From this figure, it is observed that the words “Innovation”, “Intellectual Capital” and “Tacit Knowledge” are some of the words most used during the first decade of life of the JKM. As mentioned above, Figure 9 shows the most used keywords and their relationships during the second decade (2007-2016) of the JKM.

The figure shows that keywords such as “Knowledge Sharing”, “Knowledge Transfer”, “Innovation” and “Knowledge Creation”, have an intense relationship among them. These keywords are positioned as important topics during the second decade of the existence of the JKM. Table XII presents, in greater detail, the 50 most used keywords during the 20 years of the existence of the JKM. Notice that the results derived from Table XII are similar to those shown in Figures 7, 8 and 9.

4. Conclusions

The JKM focuses on the KM field, and in its 20 years of existence, it has managed to position itself as the main journal in this field of research (Serenko and Bontis, 2017). The objective of this work is to present a bibliometric analysis of all the scientific documents published by the journal during this period of time (1997-2016). The development of this study responds to a current gap in the journal, which does not have studies that analyze its own literature.

From a general perspective, this study provides an information base of the main theoretical and empirical references published during the 20 years of JKM. But in addition, it provides a methodology that researchers can replicate to obtain updated information from their respective fields of research. This article, therefore, is relevant for researchers of various disciplines, but particularly for those who follow the JKM journal, as well as those who are dedicated to the field of knowledge management.

By using the Scopus database, 1,068 JKM documents were collected and analyzed. The results were obtained from two procedures: first, a performance analysis involving both productivity and influence indicators, second, a science mapping analysis of the different actors that are linked to the JKM. Regarding the performance analysis, this paper presents indicators of productivity and the influence of the main countries, institutions and authors publishing in the JKM. The main indicators used were the number of articles, which represents productivity and the number of citations that represent influence. In addition, the h-index is used, which is a composite index, which seeks a balance between the number of citations and the number of publications.

According to the results, this work shows that the USA and the UK are strongly positioned and leads the publications in the JKM with the highest productivity and influence. Even so, both countries have decreased their publications in JKM in recent years. This is explained by the internationalization of JKM and by the increase in publications from new countries such as France, Italy, Malaysia or China, among others. At the continental level, Europe is widely dominant in the JKM, with 50 per cent of the most productive and influential universities and authors. In this sense, it is important to highlight the weak productivity of developing countries, such as Latin Americans. Therefore, to enrich the body of literature, JKM should devote efforts to promote the research of knowledge management in emerging economic contexts.

In relation to the analysis of the universities, it is observed that Cranfield University is the most productive institution and stands out for publishing in the first issues of the JKM. However, during the past 10 years and according to the number of citations and the h-index, Griffith University has become an influential institution in JKM. As for the authors, we can mention that Serenko and Bontis are the most productive and influential authors publishing in the journal. It is also worth noting that the JKM’s most cited article, entitled “Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice”, was authored by Ardichvili, Page and Wentling. Finally, although this work highlights the authors of the most cited documents and the most productive authors who of JKM, many other authors from different parts of the world have published in the journal. Therefore, this work is also an acknowledgment to all the researchers who have collaborated in these 20 years of JKM.

To conduct the task of the science mapping analysis, this work uses VOSviewer software. This technique is more advanced than data counting techniques since it allows more sophisticated interpretation. This paper shows the publication structure of authors, universities and countries by using co-citation, bibliographic coupling, citation, co-authorship and co-occurrence of keywords. The results are consistent with performance analysis. In general, this analysis confirms that documents from the USA and the UK are followed and cited by authors from countries, such as Australia, Spain, Italy, among other. This has made them the most influential countries in the JKM literature. It is also worth noting that JKM presents a high level of self-citation, although this practice is normal in most journals. Even so, some explanations for this phenomenon are, for example, the influence exerted by some leads researchers who have published in the journal (Riege, Serenko, Bontis, among others) and the leadership exercised by JKM in the KM field. Another issue, not less important, is to highlight the influence in JKM of some authors such as Nonaka, Takeuchi, von Krogh, Davenport, among others. Many of the works of these authors (Davenport and Prusak, 1998; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Polanyi, 1966) are considered fundamental for the KM field. Finally, the mapping of science ends with a mapping of the most frequent keywords in JKM and the co-occurrence between them. Although a temporary analysis by decade of the most used keywords in JKM is also presented. This analysis shows that the authors of the JKM publish on various topics related mainly to the general concept of “Knowledge Management”. However, from a longitudinal science mapping perspective, this study shows that the authors have recently become interested in new topics, such as Knowledge Sharing, Knowledge Transfer, Innovation, Knowledge creation, among several others.

Finally, as in other studies, this paper has some limitations. First, the data are obtained from the Scopus database, whose limitations are transferred to this study. One of these limitations is, for example, the complete counting system in which papers attributed to multiple authors or affiliations tend to be more important in the analysis compared to those papers that appear with a single author. The science mapping made with the VOSviewer is used to neutralize this limitation since it uses a fractional counting system. The similarity and consistency between the results obtained from the analysis of performance and the science mapping allow us to conclude that there is no significant deviation between the two methods of counting. Still, it would be interesting to use other software, such as Histcite, Pajek or SCiMat, which can deliver information complementary to the data delivered by this paper (Zhou et al., 2018). Third, the breadth of topics and disciplines in JKM has been evidenced. In this sense, some topics may receive more attention than others regardless of their relevance. Fourth, the different analysis about the authors are made based on their signature. However, over the years, some authors can sign their documents in different ways and may produce important biases in this type of analysis. In practice, we suggest that researchers register on digital platforms, such as ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID). This type of platform provides a unique digital identifier that would solve the aforementioned complications. Fifth, the change of institution of the authors or the double affiliation at the time of publication, could also generate difficulty when analyzing the data. In this study, we have been cautious with these limitations. Finally, while the results give a picture of the current situation, the information presented in this study could change over time. In fact, we have presented evidence that confirms the variation of the topics of interest in the journal’s 20 years. Remember that some of the younger documents could include new topics or significantly increase your number of appointments over the years. Therefore, for future research, we recommend a periodic update of this study to improve the understanding of new trends in the JKM.

Figures

Number of JKM publications by year

Figure 1

Number of JKM publications by year

Co-citation of Journal cited in the JKM

Figure 2

Co-citation of Journal cited in the JKM

Co-citation of authors cited in the JKM

Figure 3

Co-citation of authors cited in the JKM

Bibliographic coupling of countries that publish in the JKM

Figure 4

Bibliographic coupling of countries that publish in the JKM

Citation analysis of countries publishing in the JKM

Figure 5

Citation analysis of countries publishing in the JKM

Co-authorship of countries that publish in the JKM

Figure 6

Co-authorship of countries that publish in the JKM

Co-occurrence of author keywords of documents published in the JKM

Figure 7

Co-occurrence of author keywords of documents published in the JKM

Co-occurrence of author keywords of documents published in the JKM (1997-2006)

Figure 8

Co-occurrence of author keywords of documents published in the JKM (1997-2006)

Co-occurrence of author keywords of documents published in the JKM (2007-2016)

Figure 9

Co-occurrence of author keywords of documents published in the JKM (2007-2016)

Annual productivity of the JKM

Period Volume Issue
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) TP AP TI AI
Decade 1 1997 Vol 1 9 8 8 8     33 33 4 4
1998 Vol 2 9 9 18 51 2 6
1999 Vol 3 8 6 5 7 26 77 4 10
2000 Vol 4 7 8 8 9 32 109 4 14
2001 Vol 5 10 7 7 9 33 142 4 18
2002 Vol 6 8 8 8 7 9 40 182 5 23
2003 Vol 7 9 10 10 11 11 51 233 5 28
2004 Vol 8 10 10 10 8 9 10 57 290 6 34
2005 Vol 9 10 10 10 10 9 10 59 349 6 40
2006 Vol 10 11 9 11 12 14 9 66 415 6 46
Decade 2 2007 Vol 11 12 9 11 13 13 11 69 484 6 52
2008 Vol 12 12 12 12 12 14 10 72 556 6 58
2009 Vol 13 13 9 12 14 13 12 73 629 6 64
2010 Vol 14 12 11 10 7 9 17 66 695 6 70
2011 Vol 15 10 10 10 8 9 11 58 753 6 76
2012 Vol 16 10 10 8 11 10 8 57 810 6 82
2013 Vol 17 9 10 9 9 9 10 56 866 6 88
2014 Vol 18 12 12 8 10 13 9 64 930 6 94
2015 Vol 19 10 13 12 10 13 10 68 998 6 100
2016 Vol 20 9 11 11 12 15 12 70 1068 6 106
Note:

The issue column (N), shows the number of papers by issue

Sources: Web page of JKM; Abbreviations: TP: total papers; AP: accumulated publications; TI: total issues; AI: accumulated issues

Annual citation structure of the JKM

YEAR TP TC ≥200 ≥100 ≥50 ≥20 ≥10 ≥5 ≥1 =0 H TC/TP IF
1997 33 313 1 2 1 4 12 7 6 7 9.48
1998 18 248 1 1 4 2 8 2 7 13.78
1999 26 569 1 3 2 8 3 6 3 12 21.88
2000 32 526 1 8 3 8 10 2 11 16.44
2001 33 937 1 3 4 3 11 8 3 11 28.39
2002 40 777 1 1 5 9 12 9 3 13 19.43
2003 51 1012 1 5 8 10 8 17 2 16 19.84
2004 57 1009 2 4 6 6 16 20 3 13 17.70
2005 59 3359 3 5 13 24 10 1 3 32 56.93
2006 66 2002 1 1 11 18 14 11 6 4 25 30.33
2007 69 2265 2 1 11 21 15 13 2 4 28 32.83
2008 72 1874 1 7 24 25 11 3 1 26 26.03
2009 73 2380 1 4 10 16 24 12 5 1 25 32.60
2010 66 1677 1 8 25 14 12 6 26 25.41
2011 58 1543 7 26 14 10 1 25 26.60 1.248
2012 57 1224 1 1 26 16 7 6 23 21.47 1.474
2013 56 1016 4 14 21 11 5 1 19 18.14 1.257
2014 64 461 2 17 19 24 2 12 7.20 1.586
2015 68 359 1 11 20 33 3 11 5.28 1.689
2016 70 118 4 43 23 4 1.69 2.053
Total 1068 23669 9 21 90 232 228 203 222 63
Percentage papers 100% 0.84% 1.97% 8.43% 21.72% 21.35% 19.01% 20.79% 5.90%
Accumulated papers 9 30 120 352 580 783 1005 1068
Percentage
Accumulated papers
100% 0.84% 2.81% 11.24% 32.96% 54.31% 73.31% 94.10% 100%
Notes:

Abbreviations: TP and TC: total papers and citations; ≥200, ≥100, ≥50, ≥20, ≥10, ≥5 and ≥1: number of papers with equal or more than 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 1 and 0 citations (without accumulating documents from previous thresholds); H = h-index; TC/TP: number the citations per paper; IF: impact factor of the Journal Citation Reports

Total authors per paper

Year TP No. of researchers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-10 CR TAY ACR
1997 33 23 6 1 2 1 10 47 2.40
1998 18 11 6 1 7 26 2.14
1999 26 15 7 2 1 1 11 44 2.64
2000 32 17 11 4 15 49 2.13
2001 33 14 10 7 1 1 19 65 2.68
2002 40 23 11 4 2 17 65 2.47
2003 51 18 19 10 4 33 110 2.79
2004 57 22 20 9 4 2 35 137 3.29
2005 59 20 19 9 5 3 2 1 1 39 137 3.00
2006 66 20 24 13 6 3 46 141 2.63
2007 69 29 16 19 4 1 40 135 2.65
2008 72 26 25 14 3 3 1 46 149 2.67
2009 73 21 23 24 5 52 156 2.60
2010 66 16 31 12 5 1 1 50 140 2.48
2011 58 10 21 22 5 48 137 2.65
2012 57 10 18 24 5 47 132 2.60
2013 56 10 21 21 3 1 46 128 2.57
2014 64 11 23 19 8 3 53 151 2.64
2015 68 10 27 22 8 1 58 160 2.59
2016 70 12 24 19 9 5 1 58 160 2.55
Total 1068 338 362 256 80 24 7 1 1 730 2269
Average   31.6 33.9 23.9 7.5 2.2 0.7 0.1 0.1  
Notes:

Abbreviations available in Table I, except for CR: research with co-authorship (sum of papers with two or more researchers, do not include singles authors); TAY: total authors by years in JKM; ACR: Average number of authors per year in manuscript with coauthored 

The most-cited documents in the JKM

R Title Name of authors YFT AGE TC TC/AGE
1 Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice Ardichvili A., Page V., Wentling T 2003 13 666 51.23
2 Overcoming cultural barriers to sharing knowledge McDermott R., O’Dell C 2001 15 485 32.33
3 Three-dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider Riege A 2005 11 437 39.72
4 Knowledge management in organizations: Examining the interaction between technologies, techniques, and people Bhatt, G.D 2001 15 421 28.06
5 Complex acts of knowing: Paradox and descriptive self-awareness Snowden, D 2002 14 405 28.92
6 Knowledge management and innovation: Networks and networking Swan, J., Newell, S., Scarbrough, H., Hislop, D 1999 17 375 22.05
7 Managing effective knowledge transfer: An integrative framework and some practice implications Goh S.C 2002 14 339 24.21
8 Knowledge sharing in context: The influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing Van Den Hooff, B., Ridder, J.A 2004 12 318 26.50
9 Knowledge management, innovation and firm performance Darroch J 2005 11 292 26.54
10 Managing organizational knowledge as a strategic asset Bollinger, A.S., Smith, R.D 2001 15 286 19.06
11 Knowledge Management: An Introduction and Perspective Wiig, K.M 1997 19 255 13.42
12 The role of tacit and explicit knowledge in the workplace Smith, E.A 2001 15 246 16.40
13 How does knowledge management influence innovation and competitiveness? Carneiro, A 2000 16 227 14.18
14 Organizational culture and knowledge sharing: Critical success factors Al-Alawi A.I., Al-Marzooqi N.Y., Mohammed Y.F 2007 9 220 24.47
15 Knowledge management initiatives: Learning from failure Storey, J., Barnett, E 2000 16 217 13.56
16 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Mártensson, M 2000 16 213 13.31
17 Cultural influences on knowledge sharing through online communities of practice Ardichvili A., Maurer M., Li W., Wentling T., Stuedemann R 2006 10 205 20.50
18 Knowledge-enabled customer relationship management: Integrating customer relationship management and knowledge management concepts Gebert, H., Geib, M., Kolbe, L., Brenner, W 2003 13 202 15.53
19 An empirical study of the important factors for knowledge-management adoption in the SME sector Wong K.Y., Aspinwall E 2005 11 200 18.18
20 Strategies for implementing knowledge management: Role of human resources management Soliman, F., Spooner, K 2000 16 194 12.12
21 Reviewing the knowledge management literature: Towards a taxonomy Kakabadse N.K., Kakabadse A., Kouzmin A 2003 13 192 14.76
22 The role of knowledge management in innovation du Plessis M 2007 9 188 20.88
23 Knowledge management in a public organization: A study on the relationship between organizational elements and the performance of knowledge transfer Omar Sharifuddin Syed-Ikhsan S., Rowland F 2004 12 186 15.50
24 Sense-making theory and practice: an overview of user interests in knowledge seeking and use Dervin B 1998 18 184 10.22
25 Web 2.0 implications on knowledge management Levy M 2009 7 184 26.28
26 Collaborative climate and effectiveness of knowledge work – an empirical study Sveiby, K.-E., Simons, R 2002 14 178 12.71
27 A resource-based view of organizational knowledge management systems Meso, P., Smith, R 2000 16 176 11.00
28 Harmonisation of knowledge management – comparing 160 KM frameworks around the globe Heisig P 2009 7 175 25.00
29 Managing human resources toward achieving knowledge management Yahya, S., Goh, W.-K 2002 14 171 12.21
30 Organisational factors and knowledge management within large marketing departments: An empirical study Bennett, R., Gabriel, H 1999 17 170 10.00
31 SME and large organisation perceptions of knowledge management: Comparisons and contrasts Mcadam, R., Reid, R 2001 15 170 11.33
32 Developing a measure of knowledge management behaviors and practices Darroch, J 2003 13 168 12.92
33 Characterizing knowledge management in the small business environment Wong K.Y., Aspinwall E 2004 12 167 13.91
34 Integrating knowledge management technologies in organizational business processes: Getting real time enterprises to deliver real business performance Malhotra, Y 2005 11 167 15.18
35 Knowledge management and organizational performance: An exploratory analysis Zack M., McKeen J., Singh S 2009 7 167 23.85
36 Communities of practice in the distributed international environment Hildreth P., Kimble C., Wright P 2000 16 165 10.31
37 The knowledge management spectrum – understanding the KM landscape Binney D 2001 15 165 11.00
38 Knowledge management at SMEs: Five peculiarities Desouza K.C., Awazu Y 2006 10 161 10.06
39 Towards knowledge networking Seufert, A., Von Krogh, G., Bach, A 1999 17 149 8.76
40 A Socio-Technical View of Knowledge Sharing at Buckman Laboratories Pan, S.L., Scarbrough, H 1998 18 147 8.16
41 Organizing knowledge in the knowledge development cycle Bhatt, G.D 1999 17 143 8.41
42 The transfer of knowledge and the retention of expertise: The continuing need for global assignments Bender, S, Fish, A 2000 16 141 8.81
43 Questions in knowledge management: Defining and conceptualising a phenomenon Uit Beijerse R.P 1999 17 140 8.23
44 Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies: Knowledge management for entrepreneurs Beijerse, R.P.U 2000 16 136 8.50
45 Managing knowledge: The link between culture and organizational learning Pérez-López, S., Montes-Peón, J.M., Vázquez-Ordás, C.J 2004 12 135 11.25
46 Determinants of knowledge sharing using Web 2.0 technologies Paroutis S., Saleh A.A 2009 7 134 19.14
47 The Knowledge Agenda Skyrme D., Amidon D 1997 19 128 6.73
48 Knowledge, Creativity and Innovation Gurteen D 1998 18 128 7.11
49 Integrating complexity theory, knowledge management and organizational learning McElroy, M.W 2000 16 123 7.68
50 Why KM projects fail: a multi-case analysis Chua A., Lam W 2005 11 124 11.27
Notes:

Abbreviations: R: rank; YFP: year first publication; AGE = (Current year: 2016) -YFP); TC: total citations; TC/AGE: citations per year

Most cited documents in JKM publications

R Cited reference Type Citations TLS
1 Nonaka, I., Takeuchi, H., (1995); The knowledge creating company; Oxford University Press B 300 256
2 Davenport, T., Prusak, L., (1998); Working knowledge: how organizations manage what they know; Harvard Business School Press B 151 149
3 Nonaka, I., A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation (1994); Organization Science, 5 (1), pp. 14-37 A 137 137
4 Alavi, M., Leidner, D.E., Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues (2001); MIS Quarterly, 25 (1), pp. 107-136 A 101 101
5 Cohen, W., Levinthal, D., Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation (1990); Administrative Science Quarterly, 35 (1), pp. 128-152 A 96 96
6 Grant, R.M., Toward a knowledge based theory of the firm (1996); Strategic Management J, 17, pp. 109-122 A 76 76
7 Nahapiet, J., Ghoshal, S., Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage (1998); Academy of Management Review, 23 (2), pp. 242-266 A 67 61
8 Barney, J., Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage (1991); J Management, 17 (1), pp. 99-120 A 66 4
9 Kogut, B., Zander, U., Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology (1992); Organization Science, 3 (3), pp. 383-397 A 65 64
10 Gold, A., Malhotra, A., Segars, A., Knowledge management: an organizational capabilities perspective (2001); J Management Information Systems, 18 (1), pp. 185-214 A 59 59
11 Szulanski, G., Exploring internal stickiness: impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm (1996); Strategic Management J, 17, pp. 27-43 A 56 56
12 Polanyi, M., (1966); The tacit dimension; Routledge & Kegan Paul B 49 44
13 Nonaka, I., The knowledge creating company (1991); Harvard Business Review, 69 (6), pp. 96-104 A 44 42
14 Hansen, M.T., Nohria, N., Tierney, T., What’s your strategy for managing knowledge? (1999); Harvard Business Review, 77 (2), pp. 106-116 A 40 40
15 Lave, J., Wenger, E., (1991); Situated Learning: legitimate peripheral participation; Cambridge University Press B 40 39
16 Teece, D., Pisano, G., Shuen, A., Dynamic capabilities and strategic management (1997); Strategic Management J, 18 (7), pp. 509-533 A 40 38
17 Hansen, M.T., The search-transfer problem: the role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits (1999); Administrative Science Quarterly, 44 (1), pp. 82-111 A 35 35
18 Zack, M., Developing a knowledge strategy (1999); California Management Review, 41 (3), pp. 125-145 A 35 35
19 Argote, L., Ingram, P., knowledge transfer: a basis for competitive advantage in firms (2000); Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82 (1), pp. 150-169 A 33 33
20 Podsakoff, P.M., Mackenzie, S.B., Lee, J.Y., Podsakoff, N.P., Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies (2003); J Applied Psychology, 88 (5), pp. 879-903 A 32 32
21 Nonaka, I., Konno, N., The concept of ‘ba’: building a foundation for knowledge creation (1998); California Management Review, 40 (3), pp. 40-54 A 31 29
23 Wenger, E., (1998); Communities of practice: learning, meaning and identity; Cambridge University Press B 31 30
24 Grant, R.M., Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments: organizational capability as knowledge integration (1996); Organization Science, 7 (4), pp. 375-387 A 30 28
25 March, J., Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning (1991); Organization Science, 2 (1), pp. 71-87 A 30 30
26 Granovetter, M., The strength of weak ties (1973); American J Sociology, 78 (6), pp. 1360-1380 A 29 29
27 Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., Konno, N., SECI, ba and leadership: a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation (2000); Long Range Planning, 33 (1), pp. 5-34 A 28 27
28 Bock, G.W., Zmud, R.W., Kim, Y.G., Lee, J.-N., Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate (2005); MIS Quarterly, 29 (1), pp. 87-111 A 27 27
29 Lee, H., Choi, B., Knowledge management enablers, processes, and organizational performance: an integrative view and empirical examination (2003); J Management Information Systems, 20 (1), pp. 179-228 A 27 27
30 Nelson, R., Winter, S., (1982); An evolutionary theory of economic change; Belknap Press B 27 26
31 Wernerfelt, B., A resource-based view of the firm (1984); Strategic Management J, 5 (2), pp. 171-180 A 27 27
32 Spender, J.C., Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm (1996); Strategic Management J, 17, pp. 45-62 A 26 26
33 Von Krogh, G., Care in knowledge creation (1998); California Management Review, 40 (3), pp. 133-153 A 26 25
34 Argote, L., McEvily, B., Reagans, R., Managing knowledge in organizations: an integrative framework and review of emerging themes (2003); Management Science, 49 (4), pp. 571-582 A 25 25
35 McDermott, R., O’Dell, c., Overcoming cultural barriers to sharing knowledge (2001); J Knowledge Management, 5 (1), pp. 76-85 A 25 24
36 Wasko, M., Faraj, S., Why should i share? examining social capital and knowledge contribution in electronic networks of practice (2005); MIS Quarterly, 29 (1), pp. 35-57 A 25 25
37 Zack, M.H., Managing codified knowledge (1999); Sloan Management Review, 40 (4), pp. 45-58 A 25 24
38 Gupta, A.K., Govindarajan, V., Knowledge flows within multinational corporations (2000); Strategic Management J, 21 (4), pp. 473-496 A 24 24
39 Riege, A., Three-dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider (2005); J Knowledge Management, 9 (3), pp. 18-35 A 24 24
40 Fornell, C., Larcker, D.F., Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error (1981); J Marketing Research, 18 (1), pp. 39-50 A 23 23
41 Ruggles, R., The state of the notion: knowledge management in practice (1998); California Management Review, 40 (3), pp. 80-89 A 23 21
42 Serenko, A., Bontis, N., Global ranking of knowledge management and intellectual capital academic journals (2009); J Knowledge Management, 13 (1), pp. 4-15 A 23 22
43 Davenport, T.H., De Long, D.W., Beers, M.C., Successful knowledge management projects (1998); Sloan Management Review, 39 (2), pp. 43-57 A 21 5
44 Wang, S., Noe, R.A., Knowledge Sharing: a review and directions for future research (2010); Human Resource Management Review, 20 (2), pp. 115-131 A 21 21
45 Zahra, S.A., George, G., Absorptive capacity: a review, reconceptualization, and extension (2002); Academy Management Review, 27 (2), pp. 185-203 A 21 21
46 Cabrera, A., Collins, W.C., Salgado, J.F., Determinants of individual engagement in knowledge sharing (2006); International J Human Resource Management, 17 (2), pp. 245-264 A 20 20
47 De Long, D.W., Fahey, L., Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management (2000); Academy Management Executive, 14 (4), pp. 113-127 A 20 20
48 Earl, M., Knowledge management strategies: toward a taxonomy (2001); J Management Information Systems, 18 (1), pp. 215-233 A 20 19
49 Zander, U., Kogut, B., Knowledge and the speed of the transfer and imitation of organizational capabilities: an empirical test (1995); Organization Science, 6 (1), pp. 76-92 A 20 20
50 Eisenhardt, K.M., Building theories from case study research (1989); Academy Management Review, 14 (4), pp. 532-550 A 19 19
Notes:

Abbreviations: Type (A: article; B: book); TLS: total link strength

Citing articles of the JKM: Journals

R Journal TP Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
1 Journal of Knowledge Management 557 17 91 182 267
2 Knowledge Management Research and Practice 132 0 8 44 81
3 Proceedings of the European Conference on Knowledge Management 103 0 19 84 0
4 Vine 99 0 3 38 58
5 Journal of Information and Knowledge Management 96 0 11 28 57
6 Journal of Intellectual Capital 81 5 10 18 48
7 International Journal of Knowledge Management 79 0 0 27 52
8 Knowledge and Process Management 72 0 0 17 55
9 Learning Organization 72 1 13 30 28
10 International Journal of Knowledge Based Development 63 0 0 18 45
11 Expert Systems with Applications 61 0 5 22 34
12 Computers in Human Behavior 58 0 0 8 50
13 Management Decision 56 0 5 19 32
14 Espacios 53 0 0 3 50
15 International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies 51 0 2 22 27
16 Industrial Management and Data Systems 46 0 3 17 26
17 International Journal of Information Management 46 0 0 15 31
18 Business Process Management Journal 44 0 4 17 23
19 Journal of Business Research 44 0 1 2 41
20 International Journal of Innovation and Learning 41 0 2 24 15
21 International Journal of Technology Management 38 0 6 20 12
22 Asian Social Science 36 0 0 1 35
23 International Journal of Project Management 35 0 1 4 30
24 International Journal of Knowledge Management 33 0 17 16 0
25 International Journal of Knowledge Culture and Change Management 31 0 0 23 8
26 Knowledge Management and E Learning 29 0 0 6 23
27 Service Industries Journal 28 0 0 12 16
28 International Journal of Knowledge and Learning 27 0 3 14 10
29 World Applied Sciences Journal 27 0 0 3 24
30 Information and Management 25 0 1 3 21
31 International Journal of Human Resource Management 25 0 1 8 16
32 International Journal of Innovation Management 25 0 0 4 21
33 Decision Support Systems 24 1 1 6 16
34 Journal of Enterprise Information Management 24 0 3 10 11
35 International Journal of Business Information Systems 23 0 0 9 14
36 Journal of Workplace Learning 23 1 6 8 8
37 International Business Management 22 0 0 0 22
38 International Journal of Production Research 22 0 0 5 17
39 Iranian Journal of Information Processing Management 22 0 0 0 22
40 Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 22 0 2 5 15
41 International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital 21 0 2 12 7
42 Journal of Information Science 21 1 1 13 6
43 Total Quality Management and Business Excellence 20 0 2 9 9
44 Technological Forecasting and Social Change 19 0 0 7 12
45 Information Development 18 0 1 1 16
46 International Journal of Business Innovation and Research 18 0 0 7 11
47 International Journal of Managing Projects in Business 18 0 0 4 14
48 Journal of Management Development 18 0 3 5 10
49 Management Research Review 18 0 0 5 13
50 Perspectivas em Ciencia da Informacao 18 0 0 10 8
Notes:

Abbreviations available in Table II, except for Q = quiquennium: number of papers published in the JKM in the period considered (Q1: 1997-2001; Q2: 2002-2006; Q3: 2007-2011; Q4: 2012-2016)

Citing articles classified by year, authors, universities and countries

R Years TP Author TP University TP Country TP
1 2016 1,192 Bontis, N 41 U. Tech. Malaysia 73 USA 1056
2 2015 979 Akhavan, P 30 Multimedia U 66 UK 984
3 2014 827 Serenko, A 28 Islamic Azad U 66 Australia 560
4 2013 752 Yigitcanlar, T 26 Hong Kong Polytechnic U 62 China 500
5 2012 703 Ooi, K.B 23 Loughborough U 60 Spain 471
6 2011 562 Metaxiotis, K 21 U. Tehran 60 Malaysia 403
7 2010 505 Grimaldi, M 20 Queensland U. Tech 58 Taiwan 343
8 2009 427 Kant, R 20 McMaster U 55 Canada 342
9 2008 332 Cegarra-Navarro, J.G 18 U. Tech. Lappeenranta 50 Iran 297
10 2007 226 Chong, S.C 18 Tampere U. Technology 48 Italy 281
11 2006 153 Ergazakis, K 18 U. Malaya 46 Finland 269
12 2005 106 Wong, K.Y 18 Nanyang Tech. U 46 India 257
13 2004 102 Soto-Acosta, P 17 McMaster U 44 Germany 219
14 2003 65 Cricelli, L 16 U. Valencia 44 Brazil 213
15 2002 57 Kianto, A 16 City U. Hong Kong 44 Netherlands 173
16 2001 39 Schiuma, G 16 RMIT U 43 Sweden 154
17 2000 14 Lin, B 15 Cranfield U 43 South Korea 145
18 1999 1 Bolisani, E 14 Griffith U 42 France 144
19 1998 5 Lytras, M.D 14 U. Manchester 42 Greece 130
20 1997 3 McAdam, R 14 U. Granada 41 New Zealand 119
21 Scarso, E 14 Northern U. Malaysia 40 South Africa 105
22 Carrillo, F.J 13 National Cheng Kung U 37 Singapore 89
23 Durst, S 13 U. Stud Padova 36 Turkey 88
24 Jafari, M 13 Tech. Monterrey 36 Portugal 87
25 Lin, H.F 13 U. Murcia 35 Thailand 85
26 Lönnqvist, A 13 U. Sao Paulo - USP 34 Denmark 82
27 Oliveira, M 13 National Tech. U. Athens 33 Norway 77
28 Singh, M.D 13 U. Politec Valencia 33 Mexico 67
29 Andreeva, T 12 Brunel U. London 33 Ireland 66
30 Chua, A.Y.K 12 Aston U 33 Pakistan 63
31 Chong, C.W 11 Ulster U 33 Austria 63
32 Gonzalez, R.V.D 11 Iran U. Science and Tech 32 United Arab Emirates 61
33 Laihonen, H 11 U. Putra Malaysia 32 Japan 59
34 Psarras, J 11 U. Federal Santa Catarina 31 Poland 59
35 Tseng, S.M 11 U. Queensland 31 Switzerland 58
36 Boateng, H 10 Lakehead U 31 Indonesia 56
37 Colomo-Palacios, R 10 Deakin U 31 Slovenia 55
38 Davison, R.M 10 MARA U. Tech 30 Saudi Arabia 51
39 Edwards, J.S 10 National U. Singapore 30 Israel 47
40 Koskinen, K.U 10 Aalto U 30 Jordan 46
41 Lee, G.G 10 U. Oulu 29 Lithuania 44
42 Martins, M.F 10 U. Sevilla 29 Colombia 43
43 Rowley, J 10 U. Oviedo 29 Russian Federation 40
44 Tsui, E 10 U. Salford 29 Nigeria 38
45 Urbancová, H 10 U. Science Malaysia 29 Belgium 37
46 Dumay, J 9 National U. Malaysia 28 Egypt 33
47 Grandinetti, R 9 U. Nottingham 28 Czech Republic 33
48 Holsapple, C.W 9 Payame Noor U 28 Romania 23
49 Lee, V.H 9 Copenhagen Business Sch 28 Vietnam 22
50 Lin, C 9 U. South Australia 28 Ghana 20
Note:

Abbreviations available in Table II

Most-productive and influential authors publishing in the JKM

R Author Name University C TP JKM General description
LA SA YFT TC C/P H T50 C-JKM TP TC C/P H C-G CA
1 Serenko, A Lakehead U CAN 12 9 1 2007 380 32 10 1 246 86 1978 23 24 1403 34
2 Bontis, N McMaster U CAN 11 3 0 2003 364 33 8 1 259 105 4991 48 30 3304 91
3 Carrillo, F.J Tech. Monterrey MEX 9 2 5 1997 65 7 6 0 46 32 145 5 7 106 17
4 Chase, R.L Milton Keynes Council UK 8 0 8 2006 178 18 3 0 178 12 178 15 3 171 0
5 Metaxiotis, K U. Piraeus GRE 7 2 0 2004 179 26 6 1 149 113 1146 10 17 958 64
6 Sun, P.Y.T U. Waikato NZL 6 1 1 2005 199 33 4 1 192 15 359 24 10 342 6
7 Ergazakis, K National Tech. U. Athens GRE 6 3 0 2004 173 29 6 1 146 41 442 11 12 362 27
8 Massingham, P U. Wollongong AUS 6 1 4 2004 107 18 5 0 100 18 183 10 7 168 8
9 Schiuma, G U. Arts London UK 5 2 0 2008 148 30 5 0 128 83 1655 20 22 1315 39
10 Kianto, A U. Tech. Lappeeranta FIN 5 1 0 2011 142 28 3 0 133 47 548 12 12 429 40
11 McAdam, R Ulster U UK 5 3 0 2001 112 22 5 0 108 174 2371 14 25 2118 111
12 Shariq, S.Z Stanford U USA 5 0 3 1997 28 6 3 0 26 9 36 4 3 33 10
13 Chatzkel, J Mayfield Village USA 5 0 5 2002 17 3 3 0 17 20 97 5 5 89 6
14 Riege, A E.ON Düsseldorf DEU 4 1 2 2005 586 147 4 1 563 8 714 89 6 690 6
15 Chua, A.Y.K Nanyang Tech. U SGP 4 2 1 2005 235 59 5 1 234 135 1565 12 22 1347 63
16 Heisig, P U. App. Sci. Potsdam DEU 4 1 1 2004 195 49 2 1 192 22 255 12 5 247 39
17 Yigitcanlar, T Queensland U. Tech AUS 4 2 1 2007 195 49 4 1 140 103 1041 10 17 526 82
18 Lytras, M.D American College Greece GRE 4 2 1 2002 150 38 3 0 147 130 1222 9 20 887 117
19 Psarras, J National Tech. U. Athens GRE 4 0 0 2004 142 36 4 1 130 224 2723 12 26 2090 146
20 Herschel, R.T U. Philadelphia USA 4 2 0 2001 95 24 4 0 95 17 385 23 8 375 19
21 Wiig, K.M Knowledge Research Inst USA 4 0 4 1997 90 23 4 0 90 19 787 41 9 743 12
22 Senoo, D Tokyo Inst. Tech JPN 4 0 0 2008 84 21 3 0 80 29 405 14 7 383 26
23 Magnier-Watanabe, R U. Tsukuba JPN 4 3 0 2008 81 20 3 0 78 30 165 6 7 154 16
24 Lee, W.B Hong Kong Polytechnic U HKG 4 0 0 2005 68 17 3 0 65 431 5813 13 42 4325 42
25 Petruzzelli, A.M Polytech Bari ITA 4 3 1 2007 60 15 4 0 54 52 509 10 14 385 26
26 Mentzas, G National Tech. U. Athens GRE 4 0 0 2004 57 14 3 0 57 183 1483 8 19 1349 140
27 Sáenz, J U. Deusto ESP 4 2 0 2006 54 14 3 0 53 25 175 7 6 167 12
28 Scarso, E U. Padua Studies ITA 4 1 0 2009 50 13 3 0 49 49 296 6 9 269 18
29 Bolisani, E U. Padua Studies ITA 4 2 0 2009 50 13 3 0 49 59 301 5 8 271 33
30 Dumay, J Macquarie U AUS 4 0 0 2015 49 12 5 0 33 53 1092 21 17 543 42
31 López-Sáez, P U. Complutense Madrid ESP 4 1 0 2010 48 12 4 0 48 21 310 15 8 303 13
32 Giudice, M.D Paris Sch. Business FRA 4 2 0 2014 35 9 3 0 30 8 47 6 3 38 10
33 Smith, A.D Robert Morris U USA 4 2 2 2002 27 7 3 0 27 200 1646 8 21 1063 29
34 Suh, E Pohang U. Science and Tech KOR 4 0 0 2003 27 7 2 0 26 46 1338 29 15 1239 50
35 Millar, C.C.J.M Hult International Business Sch USA 4 2 0 2004 26 7 2 0 26 41 245 6 7 239 38
36 Wong, K.Y U. Malaysia Tech MAL 3 2 0 2004 453 151 5 1 418 143 2118 15 20 1764 137
37 Levy, M Bar-Ilan U ISR 3 0 3 2009 246 82 3 1 244 4 246 62 3 244 0
38 Kimble, C KEDGE Business Sch FRA 3 1 0 2000 244 81 3 1 236 67 748 11 11 684 42
39 Awazu, Y Lille U FRA 3 0 1 2004 198 66 2 1 198 32 505 16 13 487 19
40 Andreeva, T Polytech. Bari IRL 3 2 0 2011 164 55 3 1 156 22 231 11 6 209 17
41 Bhatt, G.D Morgan State U USA 3 0 3 2000 139 46 3 1 128 25 1022 41 13 971 16
42 Durst, S U. Skovde SWE 3 2 0 2012 133 44 2 1 120 36 226 6 7 191 39
43 Liebowitz, J Harrisburg U. Science Tech USA 3 0 2 2000 110 37 2 1 110 115 1413 12 20 1326 83
44 Rowley, J Manchester Metropolitan U UK 3 0 0 2010 105 35 3 0 92 219 3512 16 32 3220 88
45 Eppler, M.J U. St. Gallen SWI 3 2 0 2007 94 31 3 1 93 75 1697 23 15 1519 48
46 Ganesh, L.S Indian Inst. Tech IND 3 0 0 2009 88 29 2 0 88 31 961 31 30 900 30
47 Lerro, A U. Basilicata ITA 3 2 0 2008 82 27 3 0 75 30 305 10 10 249 10
48 Murray, A Applied Knowledge Sciences USA 3 0 0 2004 69 23 3 0 69 7 80 11 4 78 6
49 Stankosky, M Hong Kong Polytech. U CHI 3 0 0 2004 69 23 3 0 69 32 171 5 7 171 22
50 Ordóñez de Pablos, P U. Oviedo ESP 3 2 1 2002 65 22 3 0 65 169 1132 7 20 817 131
Notes:

Abbreviations available in Table IV except for LA: lead author; SA: single author; C/P = citation per paper; H = h-index; Top 50 = papers among the fifty most cited; C-JKM: cited by the JKM; C-G: cited generally; CA: total co-authors; countries (AUS: Australia; CAN: Canada; CHE: Switzerland; CHI: China; DEU: Germany; ESP: Spain; FIN: Finland; FRA: France; GRC: Greece; IND: India; IRL: Ireland; ISR: Israel; ITA: Italy; JPN: Japan; KOR: South Korea; MEX: Mexico; MYS: Malaysia; NZL: New Zealand; SGP: Singapore; SWE: Sweden; UK: United Kingdom; USA: United States)

The productive and influential institutions publishing in the JKM

R Institution Country YFP TP TC H C/P ≥100 ≥50 ≥25 ≥5 ≥1 ARWU QS T50
1 Cranfield U UK 1997 14 406 7 29 1 1 3 4 4 1
2 Tech. Monterrey MEX 1997 13 112 7 9 0 0 1 8 3 238
3 Lakehead U CAN 2007 13 402 11 31 0 3 3 5 2 1
4 Nanyang Tech. U SGP 2001 12 320 11 27 1 0 3 8 0 101-150 13 1
5 Hong Kong Polytechnic U CHI 2005 11 251 8 23 0 0 5 4 1 301-400 116
6 Macquarie U AUS 2000 11 167 8 15 0 0 1 10 0 201-300 229
7 McMaster U CAN 2003 11 365 8 33 0 3 3 3 2 83 149 1
8 Griffith U AUS 2005 10 846 8 84 1 4 2 2 1 301-400 329
9 National Technical U. Athens GRE 2001 10 231 8 23 0 1 2 6 1 376 1
10 U. Manchester UK 2003 9 162 6 18 0 1 0 5 2 35 33 1
11 Queensland U. Tech AUS 2004 9 284 7 32 0 3 1 4 1 201-300 263 1
12 Copenhagen Business Sch DNK 1999 9 159 7 18 0 0 2 6 1
13 Loughborough U UK 2004 8 297 6 37 1 1 0 6 0 228 1
14 Stanford U USA 1997 8 65 5 8 0 0 1 4 2 2 3
15 Lappeenranta U. Tech FIN 2002 8 158 4 20 0 2 0 1 5 1
16 U. Murcia ESP 2007 7 112 5 16 0 0 3 2 1 701
17 U. Padova ITA 2009 7 124 5 18 0 0 2 3 1 309
18 George Washington U USA 2004 7 171 7 24 0 1 2 3 1 301-400 327
19 U. Waikato NZL 2005 7 204 4 29 1 0 2 1 3 338 1
20 U. Oviedo ESP 1999 7 104 5 15 0 0 1 4 2
21 Tampere U. Tech FIN 2003 7 83 6 12 0 0 1 5 1 356
22 Japan Advanced Inst. Sci. Tech JPN 2003 7 176 6 25 0 0 3 3 1
23 U. Wollongong AUS 2003 7 109 5 16 0 0 2 3 2 301-400 243
24 Ulster U IRL 2003 7 159 7 23 0 1 1 5 0 551-600
25 Stockholm Sch. Economics SWE 2000 7 91 5 13 0 0 1 4 2
26 U. Tech. Sydney AUS 2000 7 76 5 11 0 0 2 4 1 301-400 218
27 U. St. Gallen SWI 1999 7 239 6 34 0 2 1 3 1 329 1
28 Victoria U. Wellington NZL 2003 6 116 5 19 0 1 0 4 0 301-400 229
29 U. Maine USA 2001 6 104 5 17 0 1 0 4 1
30 U. Newcastle AUS 2010 6 95 4 16 0 0 2 2 1 301-400 256
31 Bangkok U THA 2008 6 55 4 9 0 0 0 3 3
32 U. Twente NDL 2004 6 26 2 4 0 0 0 2 1 301-400 188
33 U. Warwick UK 1998 6 266 4 44 1 1 1 1 2 151-200 48 1
34 U. Campania Luigi Vanvitelli ITA 2012 6 57 4 10 0 0 1 2 3
35 U. Complutense Madrid ESP 2010 6 86 5 14 0 0 0 6 0 301-400 226
36 SKEMA Business Sch FRA 2004 6 95 4 16 0 1 0 3 1
37 U. Castilla-La Mancha ESP 2011 5 125 5 25 0 1 0 4 0
38 U. Deusto ESP 2006 5 81 4 16 0 0 1 3 1
39 Vrije U. Amsterdam NDL 2007 5 114 4 23 0 1 1 2 1 176
40 Morgan State U USA 2000 5 197 5 39 0 1 2 1 1 1
41 Brunel U. London UK 2001 5 41 3 8 0 0 1 1 2 401-500 331
42 U. Basilicata ITA 2008 5 149 5 30 0 0 4 1 0
43 U. North Texas USA 2008 5 91 5 18 0 1 0 4 0 301-400
44 U. Sydney AUS 2005 5 92 4 18 0 0 2 2 1 82 45
45 Polytechnic Bari ITA 2008 5 76 5 15 0 0 1 4 0
46 U. Stockholm SWE 2000 5 55 4 11 0 0 1 2 2 81 182
47 Curtin U AUS 2007 5 96 5 19 0 0 2 3 0 201-300 284
48 Korea Advanced Inst. Sci & Tech KOR 2005 5 133 3 27 0 1 1 1 1 201-300 43
49 Chalmers U. Tech SWE 2006 4 102 4 25 0 1 1 2 0 201-300 132
50 U. Sao Paulo BRA 2012 4 67 4 17 0 0 1 2 1 101-150 143
Notes:

Abbreviations available in Tables I and VIII, except for ARWU = academic ranking of world universities (only the top 500); QS = world university rankings (only the top 800); countries (DNK: Denmark; THA: Thailand)

Temporal evolution of the publications classified by country

R Country TP TC H C/P Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
TP TC TP TC TP TC TP TC P/Po C/Po T50
1 USA 229 5573 39 24,34 57 1283 72 2360 65 1638 35 292 0,7 17,25 12
2 UK 163 3842 34 23,57 39 487 42 1630 48 1362 34 363 2,5 58,38 11
3 Australia 99 2217 25 22,39 13 120 25 946 29 786 32 365 4,1 92,60 2
4 Spain 70 1113 20 15,90 1 13 21 354 22 560 26 186 1,5 23,92 1
5 China (Hong Kong) 47 825 17 17,55 1 17 8 252 14 350 24 206 0,0 0,60
6 Italy 46 681 16 14,80 3 103 13 239 30 339 0,8 11,24
7 Canada 45 1165 17 25,89 2 21 6 394 13 493 24 257 1,2 32,16 2
8 Germany 45 1059 19 23,53 4 47 17 359 14 549 10 104 0,5 12,79 3
9 France 38 403 11 10,61 1 14 8 50 8 269 21 70 0,6 6,01 1
10 Finland 31 709 15 22,87 8 236 9 305 14 168 5,6 128,83 3
11 Netherlands 29 603 13 20,79 2 165 10 249 7 148 10 41 2,9 60,20 2
12 Sweden 27 320 10 11,85 5 52 8 136 6 106 8 26 2,7 32,02
13 India 25 490 11 19,60 0 0 3 131 13 292 9 67 0,0 0,37
14 Taiwan 25 475 12 19,00 0 0 4 28 8 328 13 119 1,1 20,18
15 South Korea 25 339 11 13,56 0 0 8 113 6 153 11 73 0,5 6,65
16 New Zealand 24 973 15 40,54 0 0 7 589 9 311 8 73 5,1 205,01 3
17 Japan 22 325 10 14,77 0 0 6 34 12 279 4 12 0,2 2,56
18 Malaysia 21 705 13 33,57 0 0 4 379 4 173 13 153 0,7 22,27 2
19 Greece 19 523 12 27,53 1 7 10 325 8 191 0 0 1,8 48,62 1
20 Denmark 19 335 10 17,63 4 28 7 163 2 90 6 54 3,3 58,27 1
21 Singapore 18 407 12 22,61 1 13 3 39 10 253 4 102 3,2 72,59 1
22 Brazil 16 186 8 11,63 1 1 2 4 5 117 8 64 0,1 0,90
23 Switzerland 15 350 8 23,33 2 35 4 143 4 153 5 19 1,8 41,58 1
24 Mexico 15 124 7 8,27 1 7 5 29 7 87 2 1 0,1 1,02
25 Israel 13 485 9 37,31 1 3 5 154 6 318 1 10 1,5 56,76 2
26 Austria 11 176 7 16,00 0 0 1 28 7 114 3 34 1,3 20,06
27 Thailand 10 94 5 9,40 0 0 3 51 0 0 7 43 0,1 1,37
28 South Africa 9 364 7 40,44 0 0 3 41 3 270 3 53 0,2 6,51 1
29 Norway 9 79 6 8,78 1 0 1 6 3 45 4 28 1,7 15,02
30 Iran 9 50 5 5,56 0 0 0 0 3 20 6 30 0,1 0,62
31 Portugal 7 210 6 30,00 2 48 1 71 1 37 3 54 0,7 20,37 1
32 United Arab Emirates 6 52 5 8,67 0 0 2 13 2 19 2 20 0,6 5,61
33 Russian Federation 5 257 4 51,40 0 0 1 90 1 58 3 109 0,0 1,79 2
34 Turkey 5 188 5 37,60 0 0 0 0 4 179 1 9 0,1 2,36 1
35 Ireland 5 137 5 27,40 0 0 1 13 3 67 1 57 1,0 28,69
36 Slovenia 4 122 4 30,50 0 0 2 122 0 0 0 0 1,9 59,05
37 Poland 4 63 3 15,75 0 0 0 0 2 49 2 14 0,1 1,66
38 Saudi Arabia 4 50 4 12,50 0 0 0 0 2 46 2 4 0,1 1,61
39 Bahrain 3 265 3 88,33 0 0 0 0 3 265 0 0 2,3 204,79 1
40 Liechtenstein 3 135 3 45,00 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 135 79,3 3570,01 1
41 Colombia 3 82 3 27,33 0 0 0 0 2 58 1 24 0,1 1,70
42 Egypt 3 57 3 19,00 0 0 0 0 1 44 2 13 0,0 0,63
43 Nigeria 3 37 3 12,33 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 37 0,0 0,20
44 Belgium 3 18 2 6,00 1 1 0 0 1 13 1 4 0,3 1,58
45 Jamaica 2 279 2 139,50 0 0 0 0 2 279 0 0 0,7 99,15 2
46 Iceland 2 105 1 52,50 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 105 5,9 310,33 1
47 Georgia 2 37 2 18,50 0 0 2 37 0 0 0 0 0,5 9,95
48 Peru 2 22 2 11,00 0 0 0 0 1 11 1 11 0,1 0,71
49 Pakistan 2 19 2 9,50 0 0 1 8 1 11 0 0 0,0 0,10
50 Lebanon 2 15 2 7,50 0 0 0 0 1 7 1 8 0,3 2,51
Note:

Abbreviations available in Tables VI and VIII, except for P/Po and C/Po = papers and cities per million inhabitants

Most cited journals and books in the JKM

R Global 1997-2006 2007-2016
Journal Cit CLS Journal Cit CLS Journal Cit CLS
1 Journal of Knowledge Management 3257 2497 Strategic Management Journal 408 339 Journal of Knowledge Management 2528 1922
2 Strategic Management Journal 1772 1524 Journal of Knowledge Management 404 286 Strategic Management Journal 1291 1111
3 Organization Science 1505 1356 Harvard Business Review 303 263 Organization Science 1125 1015
4 Academy of Management Review 826 782 Organization Science 279 249 Academy of Management Review 640 603
5 Harvard Business Review 819 750 California Management Review 259 233 Academy of Management Journal 556 525
6 California Management Review 729 682 Academy of Management Review 155 147 Administrative Science Quarterly 543 511
7 Administrative Science Quarterly 707 666 Administrative Science Quarterly 136 128 MIS Quarterly 534 494
8 Academy of Management Journal 685 649 Sloan Management Review 127 118 Management Science 472 449
9 MIS Quarterly 677 626 Academy of Management Journal 90 86 Harvard Business Review 459 437
10 Management Science 582 556 Management Science 81 79 California Management Review 443 423
11 Journal of Management Studies 457 437 Long Range Planning 79 74 Journal of Management Studies 375 357
12 Journal of Management Information Systems 437 416 Journal of Management Studies 66 63 Research Policy 325 282
13 Research Policy 380 333 Journal of Management Information Systems 63 60 Journal of Management Information Systems 322 307
14 Sloan Management Review 327 312 European Management Journal 61 58 Journal of Intellectual Capital 260 233
15 Journal of Intellectual Capital 326 298 MIS Quarterly 57 53 Knowledge Management Research and Practice 246 234
16 Journal of Management 320 313 Expert System with Applications 52 40 Journal of Management 245 239
17 Knowledge and Process Management 302 291 Communications of the ACM 51 43 Knowledge and Process Management 232 222
18 Knowledge Management Research and Practice 292 279 Journal of International Business Studies 48 43 Journal of International Business Studies 222 202
19 Long Range Planning 280 271 The Knowledge-Creating Company 48 46 Organization Studies 197 191
20 Journal of International Business Studies 275 250 Journal of Marketing 47 42 Long Range Planning 188 183
21 Organization Studies 248 241 Journal of Management 45 44 Sloan Management Review 187 182
22 Expert Systems with Applications 217 203 Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know 45 45 The Learning Organization 173 162
23 Journal of Applied Psychology 211 199 Journal of Intellectual Capital 44 43 Journal of Applied Psychology 170 160
24 The Learning Organization 207 195 Knowledge and Process Management 43 42 Expert Systems with Applications 159 149
25 Journal of Marketing 197 181 Organizational Dynamics 42 41 Journal of Marketing 142 129
26 Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know 189 189 The Tacit Dimension 42 41 Management Decision 137 133
27 European Management Journal 185 181 The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation 41 39 Technovation 136 129
28 International Journal of Information Management 183 178 Research Policy 40 37 Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know 130 130
29 Management Decision 177 171 American Journal of Sociology 38 36 International Journal of Information Management 129 126
30 Decision Support Systems 162 158 Academy of Management Executive 37 36 Information and Management 123 118
31 Technovation 162 154 Organization Studies 37 36 Human Relations 121 117
32 Human Relations 158 153 The Knowledge Creating Company 35 33 American Journal of Sociology 119 115
33 Information and Management 158 152 Fortune 33 30 European Management Journal 119 117
34 American Journal of Sociology 157 152 Human Relations 32 31 Journal of Business Research 119 115
35 The Tacit Dimension 157 156 Computerworld 31 25 Decision Support Systems 113 111
36 The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create The Dynamics of Innovation 143 140 Decision Support Systems 30 29 Industrial and Corporate Change 110 107
37 Industrial and Corporate Change 142 139 Knowledge Management 30 27 The Tacit Dimension 108 108
38 Journal of Business Research 141 137 Management Decision 29 26 Journal of Information Science 106 104
39 Journal of Marketing Research 135 130 Post-Capitalist Society 28 28 Journal of Marketing Research 104 102
40 Information Systems Research 134 131 American Sociological Review 27 24 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 101 99
41 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 134 131 An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change 26 26 Information Systems Research 98 97
42 Communications of the ACM 126 117 Industrial and Corporate Change 26 25 Journal of Knowledge Management Practice 97 90
43 Journal of Information Science 126 124 International Journal of Information Management 25 24 The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation 96 96
44 Academy of Management Executive 122 121 International Journal of Technology Management 25 24 Industrial Management and Data Systems 95 91
45 Industrial Management and Data Systems 120 115 Knowledge Management Handbook 25 24 Journal of Product Innovation Management 94 89
46 International Journal of Technology Management 118 116 The New Organizational Wealth: Managing And Measuring Knowledge-Based Assets 24 24 International Journal of Technology Management 87 85
47 The Knowledge-Creating Company 114 112 American Economic Review 23 21 British Journal of Management 86 85
48 Journal of Product Innovation Management 113 108 Working Knowledge 23 23 Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 86 83
49 Organizational Dynamics 112 111 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 22 21 Human Resource Management 84 81
50 Human Resource Management 107 103 Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations 21 21 Scientometrics 84 73
Notes:

Abbreviations available in Table IV, except for – Cit: total citations in the JKM; CLS: co-citation links

Most common keyword occurrences in the JKM

Global 1997-2006 2007-2016
Keyword OC TLS Keyword OC TLS Keyword OC TLS
1 Knowledge management 670 579 Knowledge management 238 208 Knowledge management 405 359
2 Knowledge sharing 140 127 Innovation 36 36 Knowledge sharing 127 115
3 Knowledge transfer 98 92 Intellectual capital 23 23 Knowledge transfer 85 80
4 Innovation 96 95 Tacit knowledge 18 18 Innovation 60 58
5 Knowledge creation 55 52 Information 17 17 Knowledge creation 41 40
6 Tacit knowledge 48 46 Learning organizations 17 16 Tacit knowledge 28 27
7 Intellectual capital 47 45 Knowledge workers 17 15 Organizational culture 27 27
8 Knowledge management systems 38 36 Learning 16 15 Communication technologies 23 23
9 Learning 36 34 Knowledge processes 15 15 Intellectual capital 23 22
10 Organizational culture 33 33 Management 15 15 Knowledge management systems 21 20
11 Learning organizations 31 27 Information technology 14 14 Social capital 20 20
12 Organizations 28 28 Organizational learning 14 13 Organizations 19 19
13 Communication technologies 28 27 Competitive advantage 13 13 Learning 19 17
14 Information technology 27 26 Knowledge management systems 12 12 Knowledge organizations 17 17
15 Knowledge processes 26 24 Knowledge creation 11 11 Social networks 16 15
16 Knowledge 24 24 Knowledge transfer 11 10 Organizational performance 14 14
17 Organizational learning 24 22 Knowledge 10 9 Learning organizations 14 13
18 Knowledge workers 22 20 Networks 10 8 China 13 13
19 Knowledge organizations 21 21 Organizations 9 9 Knowledge economy 13 13
20 Organizational performance 21 21 Cities 8 8 Research 13 13
21 Social capital 20 20 Explicit knowledge 8 8 Trust 13 13
22 Social networks 20 18 Case studies 7 7 Modelling 12 12
23 Knowledge economy 19 19 Corporate culture 7 7 Multinational companies 12 12
24 Case studies 18 18 Information systems 7 7 Communities of practice 12 11
25 Competitive advantage 18 18 Knowledge sharing 7 7 Information technology 12 11
26 Information 18 17 Project management 7 7 Critical success factors 11 11
27 Management 17 17 Internet 6 6 Knowledge 11 11
28 Trust 17 16 Knowledge economy 6 6 Knowledge processes 11 11
29 Cities 16 16 Space technology 6 6 Leadership 11 11
30 Modelling 16 16 Strategy 6 6 Spain 11 11
31 Project management 16 16 Creativity 6 5 Organizational learning 10 9
32 Research 16 16 Knowledge-based systems 6 4 Case studies 10 10
33 China 16 15 Communication technologies 5 5 Human resource management 10 10
34 Multinational companies 15 15 Culture change 5 5 India 10 10
35 Communities of practice 15 14 Decision making 5 5 Knowledge-based view 10 10
36 Human resource management 14 14 Intangible assets 5 5 Motivation 9 9
37 Spain 14 14 Intellectual property 5 5 National cultures 9 9
38 Leadership 14 13 Language 5 5 Project management 9 9
39 Information systems 13 13 Organizational culture 5 5 Competences 9 8
40 Motivation 13 13 Organizational development 5 5 Cities 8 8
41 Performance 13 12 Organizational performance 5 5 Collaboration 8 8
42 Collaboration 12 12 Performance measurement 5 5 Communities 8 8
43 Critical success factors 12 12 Process management 5 5 Performance 8 8
44 Explicit knowledge 12 12 Resources 5 5 Small to medium-sized enterprises 8 8
45 India 12 12 Semantics 5 5 Social media 8 7
46 Knowledge-based systems 12 12 Narratives 5 4 Absorptive capacity 7 7
47 Small to medium-sized enterprises 12 12 Performance 5 4 Culture 7 7
48 Big data 12 11 Technology 5 4 Knowledge acquisition 7 7
49 Decision making 12 11 Collaboration 4 4 Knowledge mapping 7 7
50 Networks 12 10 Cognition 4 4 Organizational structures 7 7
Notes:

Abbreviations available in Table IV, except for; C = occurrences; TLS = total link strength

Note

1.

The original definition of the h-index, proposed by Hirsch (2005), was: “A scientist has index h if h of his or her Np papers have at least h citations each and the other (Nph) papers have ≤ h citations each.”

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Corresponding author

Magaly Gaviria-Marin can be contacted at: mgaviria@ucsc.cl

About the authors

Magaly Gaviria-Marin is a PhD candidate at the Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Barcelona and Associate Researcher at the Faculty of Economics and Administration Sciences of Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile

Jose M. Merigo is based at the Department of Management Control and Information Systems, School of Economics and Business, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

Simona Popa is based at the Department of Business Administration, Universidad Catolica San Antonio de Murcia, Murcia, Spain