The purpose of this paper is to investigate generated themes associated with talent development in the Australian higher education sector. This is because there are pragmatic advantages for universities that are focused on developing talents. For example, talent is a primary source of competitive advantage for educational institutions.
This study depends on the individual interview method as the main tool for data collection. The sample consisted of six participants who are talented. High-level individual interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using NVivo 11.
Individual interviews have identified four key themes of talent development: performance management, coaching talent, leadership development and talent acquisition.
This study only targeted one country (Australia), and one sector (higher education). Hence, the generalisability of these results is limited to the Australian university sector in Queensland.
This study collects rich and original qualitative data regarding talent development in the higher education domain. Therefore, for instance, the research findings validate what was already found but are significant because practical data rather than theoretical were gathered through a discussion with experts in talent management. This study has a high quality because of strengthening the effect of an in-depth case study.
The study offers a value added to talent management theory through investigating themes of talent development for the higher education sector. This would assist researchers in this field to provide a deeper understanding and develop a theoretical foundation for their further studies. This implication is unique to the advancement of talent management theory.
Mohammed, A., Hafeez-Baig, A. and Gururajan, R. (2019), "A qualitative research to explore practices that are utilised for managing talent development in the higher education environment: A case study in six Australian universities", Journal of Industry - University Collaboration, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 24-37. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIUC-02-2019-003Download as .RIS
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2019, Atheer Abdullah Mohammed, Abdul Hafeez-Baig and Raj Gururajan
Published in Journal of Industry-University Collaboration. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode
In recent years, talent management research studies have been used to assist organisations meet demands associated with increased competitiveness (Mohammed, 2018; Mohammed, Hafeez-Baig and Gururajan, 2018). This has been by capitalising on their human assets to develop their talent capabilities (Daraei et al., 2014; Gallardo-Gallardo et al., 2015; Mohammed et al., 2017; Osigwelem, 2017; Urbancová and Vnoučková, 2015). This is because of the pragmatic advantages for organisations that focus on talents (Hazelkorn, 2017; Jones, 2008; Lynch, 2015; Norhafizah, 2016; Shabane, 2017; Urbancová and Vnoučková, 2015). For example, talent development assists in increasing the rankings and profits of higher education organisations (Diezmann, 2018; Hazelkorn, 2017; Lynch, 2015). The period of the talent economy is dependent upon knowledge, networks and information (Gateau and Simon, 2016; Mohammed et al., 2017). Many scholars have paid empirical attention to development of talent (Andersen, 2013; Awan and Farhan, 2016; Ford, 2017; Gallardo-Gallardo and Thunnissen, 2016; Ortlieb and Sieben, 2012; Tarique and Schuler, 2010; Thomas, 2015). This is because talent development is of strategic importance in today’s unpredictable knowledge economy, as it aids an organisation to accomplish strategic business objectives, achieves fundamental business requirements and it forms the basis for the implementation of a business strategy (Ford, 2017; Hejase et al., 2016; Kim et al., 2014; Rothwell, 2011; Rothwell et al., 2014; Tatoglu et al., 2016; Waheed et al., 2013). Thus, talent development is the essential to growth and success of higher education organisations as an industry over long period of time by employing an organisation’s strategy with highly qualified individuals (Bradley, 2016; Kamal, 2017; Mohammed, Baig and Gururajan et al., 2018; Rudhumbu and Maphosa, 2015; Wu et al., 2016).
Nonetheless, new research in the strategic human resources area is urgently needed and rapidly expanding, as organisations have encountered significant challenges associated with talent management (Kamal, 2017; Mohammed et al., 2017; Scaringella and Malaeb, 2014). These key challenges are faced by Australian higher education organisations as an industry sector, which needs high-quality assurance in terms of their technical expertise and activities (Chiou, 2014; Choon Boey Lim, 2009; Lim, 2010; Lynch, 2013; Shah and Jarzabkowski, 2013) and an ability to be leading exporters of international education (Carnegie and Tuck, 2010; Chiou, 2014; Harmon, 2015; Lynch, 2013). Bradley (2016) suggested that a key solution to meet these challenges in Australian higher education could be the application of talent development programs.
In a perfect business world, because of strong competition, organisations should develop their talented employees to enable them to become productive more rapidly (Malmgren McGee and Hedström, 2016). Hence, the talent development process needs to be embedded within staffing progress, and be regarded as a successful measure for organisations to improve the skills of their highly qualified individual staff members (Chuai, 2008; Moayedi and Vaseghi, 2016; Mohan et al., 2015; Wu et al., 2016). Talent development is considered a critical resource of differentiation and sustainable competitive advantage (Beardwell and Thompson, 2014; Mohan et al., 2015). It is strategically important for an organisation’s success (Bhatia, 2015; Mohan et al., 2015; Mwangi et al., 2014). For instance, the development of talent working within higher education organisations also assists in retaining talented employees (Mohan et al., 2015), which in turn assists in increasing university rankings and profits (Hazelkorn, 2017; Lynch, 2015). University rankings are aligned with the talent of high-performing employees, and these talented individuals contribute significantly to a university’s performance by recruiting new students, conducting professional teaching, conducting high-level research and securing research funding (Bradley, 2016; Hazelkorn, 2017; Horseman, 2018; Lynch, 2015; Refozar et al., 2017).
The development process of talent involves three elements: performance management; coaching talent; and leadership development:
Performance management – as one of the key processes of talent development, this assists in filling the gap between the current and planned performance of highly qualified employees (Al Ariss et al., 2014; Jyoti et al., 2015; Mohan et al., 2015). It evaluates the current performance of talents to assist them in identifying their competency level, and then developing their capabilities (AlKerdawy, 2016; Lyria, 2014). Through this process, training needs can be identified to develop talent (Al Ariss et al., 2014; Vnoučková et al., 2016). Organisations should offer their experienced staff appropriate development strategies to improve their strong points and hence improve their total performance, including particular competencies, strengthening their motivation and boosting their career development (Lockwood, 2006; Nyaribo, 2016; Wu et al., 2016).
Coaching talent – this is the second sub-variable of talent development. The existing literature on coaching talent is extensive and focuses on learning and development of talent (Joo et al., 2012; Prinsloo, 2017). Even though coaching talent can be a significant tool for achieving high talent development through learning skills and creating knowledge, the difficulty in transforming these skills from outside an organisation has been a disadvantage (Meyers et al., 2013; Moayedi and Vaseghi, 2016). Coaching talent through internal job rotation can develop individual knowledge and experience from different departments and divisions within an organisation (Cooke et al., 2014; Rothwell, 2005; Tatoglu et al., 2016). Training and mentoring programs are valuable tools for developing talent (Prinsloo, 2017; Tafti et al., 2017; Walker, 2017). These programs can be offered online (AlKerdawy, 2016), and can also include face-to-face learning and teaching courses for academic staff (Al Saifi, 2014) to gain required knowledge and skills (Al Saifi, 2014; AlKerdawy, 2016). In addition, leading organisations provide their talented employees with career development opportunities (Brunila and Baedecke Yllner, 2013; Chami-Malaeb and Garavan, 2013; Joo et al., 2012; Yap, 2016).
Leadership development – this is a key process of talent development (Mohan et al., 2015). It assists organisations in achieving overall organisational sustainability (Chami-Malaeb and Garavan, 2013; Dalakoura, 2010; Prinsloo, 2017). Effective and developed leadership is a key element of organisational sustainability (Terblanche et al., 2017). Organisational sustainability through leadership assists organisations to strategically generate intrinsic values and well-being for all stakeholders (Terblanche et al., 2017). The leadership development process includes “coaching, multi-source feedback, stretch assignments, mentoring, international job assignments and formal development programmes” (Chami-Malaeb and Garavan, 2013, p. 4047), as well as succession planning (Hejase et al., 2016; Mathew, 2015; Rothwell, 2005). In academic organisations, high-level leadership provides talented individuals with sufficient opportunities in regard to functional planning programs (Bradley, 2016; Mohan et al., 2015). Conversely, a lack of formalised organisational leadership training could negatively affect employees from achieving their advancement potential (Walker, 2017). Therefore, the leadership development process enables leaders to obtain the skills and competencies necessary to be effective through role-assignment leadership programs (Chami-Malaeb and Garavan, 2013; Dalakoura, 2010).
In brief, it has been shown in this review that talent development is a critical source of sustainable competitive priority in various sectors in general, and in the higher education sector specifically. It assists in retaining highly qualified employees and increasing university rankings and profits. Thus, talent development in academic institutions is a function of performance management, coaching talent and leadership development.
Individual interviews as a qualitative method are considered one of the most widely employed and commonly known qualitative research approaches (Bryman, 2015; Cridland et al., 2016; Keeley et al., 2016). A personal interview is a direct interview between a researcher and a research participant to discuss a specific topic (Bryman and Bell, 2007; Cooper and Schindler, 2011; Zikmund et al., 2013). The individual interviews method has been employed in this research for the following reasons. Personal interviews are useful in potentially making generalisations for a larger population of concern and they are more inductive in their operation (Dworkin, 2012). In addition, individual interviews are helpful at the final phase of survey development, to guide participant comprehension of survey items and examine them for content validity (Brédart et al., 2014; Creswell, 2014; Howard et al., 2016; Veronese et al., 2016). Finally, individual interviews do not involve particular skills; they involve interaction only with a specific individual, attempting to understand their ideas and experience as well as their opinions about a specific topic (Silverman, 2014).
Nevertheless, there are some difficulties with the individual interview technique such as the following:
The ambiguity of language – in some cases when questions are asked about the topic under study, one may not get significant answers due to ambiguity and lack of full understanding by interviewees. This may inhibit the objectives of the interview process (Gupta and Hilal, 2014; Johnsrud, 2016; Pelteret, 2014).
However, there are a number of solutions to decrease the disadvantages and overcome the difficulties of the individual interviews. To deal with ambiguity of language, the interview questions were focused on understandable language with a clear structure to reduce multiple interpretations and gain accurate answers (Brennen, 2017; Doody and Noonan, 2013; Ervo, 2016; Martínez-Gómez, 2014). In the case of controlling an interview gone wrong, the interviewer was “able to respond by moving away from the topic, rephrasing the question or, in some cases, pausing or ending the interview” (Doody and Noonan, 2013, p. 6). Similarly, the researcher ended an interview when the discussion got out of control. In terms of dealing with the elite bias in this specific research, individuals who are in the top and middle managerial levels needed to be interviewed (Durward and Blohm, 2017; Kupfer et al., 2016; Sigvaldadóttir and Taylor, 2016) because those individuals have the responsibility of managing action plans related to talent development in their universities.
Actual data collection
The individual interviews were conducted by the researchers with six highly qualified individuals. The singular interviews began with a short introduction where the interviewer welcomed participants and introduced himself and his research topic. A quick summary explanation of the primary purpose of the individual interview was supplied to the interviewees before starting the actual interview. Individual interview protocol was conducted with six focused questions. Answering these questions was important to develop the preliminary research model, and obtain in-depth understanding of the themes and category items contributing to talent development. The interview ended when sufficient information was obtained. Subsequently, the researcher compiled a document including the interview notes and full transcription. In terms of recording, all individual interviews were audio recorded by either phone or face to face to save time and cost. After each interview, the researcher evaluated the details and formulated a synopsis of events before undertaking the procedures for transcription. Each individual interview was audio recorded in MP3 format, then transcribed without eliminating the spontaneous character of the speeches.
For tracking themes, all transcripts and written notes were analysed using a content analysis technique within NVivo software. Qualitative content analysis is an accepted technique of textual analysis, especially in the area of large-scale communications (Drisko and Maschi, 2015; Elo and Kyngäs, 2008; Hatcher, 2017; Mayer, 2015; Silverman, 2014; Zikmund et al., 2013). This technique is systematically used for analysing the content of a body language (Saberiyan, 2015; Tharenou et al., 2007; Zikmund et al., 2013) and written, verbal or visual data (Ozuem et al., 2016; Tharenou et al., 2007). We used both manual and text analysis software (NVivo 11) to code, recode and generate themes (Ngulube, 2015; Paulus and Bennett, 2017). Manual data analysis is conducted through using a thematic method to inductively derive and identify phrases and words that were related to the research question (Mayer, 2015; Tong et al., 2014). “Text query search” is a technique in NVivo software to create a word cloud and comprehend the context of the words used (Chalanuchpong et al., 2017; Hatcher, 2017). In this data analysis, it was found that participants provided valuable ideas of the talent development practices, which are used in their universities for applying information. Table I summarises data analysis of the individual interviews for talent development. Four broad themes emerged from the analysis of talent development. Each of these themes is summarised and described. The results have been detailed below, using abbreviation to preserve participant anonymity. For example, IR1 means individual interview 1, participant 1.
Talent development is focused on achieving and maintaining an organisation’s human capital through learning that changes behaviour in the organisation and in its talented employees (Lyria, 2014). The key interview question that specifically addressed sub-themes around this concept was: “How are talented staff developed in your organisation?” Table I shows that there was a sense of talent development amongst interviewees. This presented four key sub-themes:
performance management which includes training needs identification, skill gaps analysis, succession planning and appropriate development strategies;
coaching talent which includes providing sufficient coaching time, training and mentoring through job rotations and opportunities for talent development;
leadership development such as leadership workshops to develop future leaders, and role-assignment programs; and
talent acquisition such as one interviewee put it:
Inter-disciplinary teams with capacity building professors that are engaged with external industries and research studies so that they can develop their skills in attracting research funding […].
Many terms have been utilised to explain talent development, such as “develop”, “development” and “training”. For example, four out of six participants mentioned “leadership” and “coaching”; all six interviewees mentioned “training” during the discussion. Given the evidence, text query searches in NVivo led to the following supporting data outlined in Figures 1–3.
According to the outcomes of the qualitative phase of this research, the development process of talents involves four elements: performance management; coaching talent; leadership development; and talent acquisition. Similar results were described in Lyria’s (2014) research. She highlighted a number of themes related to talent development, two of which (leadership development and coaching) were the same as those found in this study.
The first theme of talent development stated by participants was performance management. It comprises some concepts as such appropriate development strategies, training need identification and skill gap analysis. These outcomes corroborate with AlKerdawy (2016), Horváthová and Durdová (2011), Kimathi (2015), Lyria (2014), Wu et al. (2016) and Xue (2014) who highlight that an institution should offer its employees appropriate development strategies to improve their strong points, and hence improve their total performance including particular competencies, strengthening their motivation and boosting their career development. In terms of skill gap analysis, the results of this theme clarify that Queensland universities create job description, learning content systems and competency models depending on the required training of its talented staff. These outcomes are consistent with Bersin (2013) who recommended that an institution should create a set of simple self-assessments which describe core skills needed, and experience required for each functional position in the institution.
The empirical qualitative results in this study clarified that coaching talent is a key process of talent development in Queensland universities. This subtheme covers some items: career development programs (e.g. job rotations), learning and teaching orientations, training and mentoring and other development opportunities. These results are in line with AlKerdawy (2016), Garavan et al. (2012), Kimathi (2015), Lyria (2014) and Meyers and van Woerkom (2014) who point out that coaching talent can be a significant tool for achieving high talent development through learning skills. This view is supported by Cooke et al. (2014) who point out that coaching talent through internal job rotation can develop individual knowledge and experiences from different departments and divisions with an institution. In the same vein Al Saifi (2014), AlKerdawy (2016), Prinsloo (2017) and Walker (2017) state that training and mentoring programs such as online, learning and teaching courses allow academic staff to gain required knowledge and skills, as valuable tools for developing talents.
The third theme of talent development is leadership development which should be highlighted by educational institutions to develop talented individuals. This subtheme includes some items such as role-assignment programs of leadership, education to leaders, career development programs and succession planning. These outcomes are similar to the study of Chami-Malaeb and Garavan (2013, p. 4047) who outline that the leadership development process typically includes “coaching, multi-source feedback, stretch assignments, mentoring, international job assignments and formal development programmes”. Similarly, Davis and Maldonado (2015), Dopson et al. (2016), Nica (2013) and Peet et al. (2010) agree that innovative institutions should focus on viable leadership development within higher education. In addition, the findings on succession planning of leaders corroborate with Kimathi (2015), Lyria (2014) and Xue (2014) who observed that the importance of the existence of succession planning contributed positively in developing talented individuals’ skills.
The fourth and final theme of talent development is talent acquisition. The empirical results in this case study demonstrate that acquiring skilled talented individuals is needed to meet the university’s requirements. These results correspond to the work of Randhawa (2017) and Silzer and Dowell (2010) who notice that an institution should build its talented staff skills to meet institutional needs.
To conclude this section, the results of the four key themes of talent development above are in line with Bradley (2016), Kamal (2017), Rudhumbu and Maphosa (2015) and Wu et al. (2016) who point out that development of talent are essential for growth and success of higher education institutions over the long term. This view is supported by Ford (2017), Hejase et al. (2016), Kim et al. (2014), Rothwell (2011), Rothwell et al. (2014), Tatoglu et al. (2016) and Waheed et al. (2013) who emphasise talent development is strategically more important in today’s volatile knowledge economy, because they help an institution to achieve strategic business aims, meet basic business requirements and form the foundation to implement business strategy. Similarly, Kataike (2013), Mwangi et al. (2014), Van den Broek et al. (2018) and Xue (2014) state that an institution that established its core competence in development of talent guarantees its own stability and success among other competitors in the industry.
Conclusions and limitations
The key conclusion of this study is that Queensland universities are significantly aware of four processes that are currently used in managing talent development in their divisions and faculties. These processes are performance management, coaching talent, leadership development and talent acquisition processes to be most common processes within educational institutions. Consequently, participants consider those practices as a strategic key to institutional success. This research has theoretical and practical contributions. The research offers a value added to talent management theory. It also provides an inclusive review of future studies in choosing the best practices related to talent development. This will assist researchers in the field of human resources management to provide a deeper understanding of talent development and develop a theoretical foundation for their further studies. In terms of the practical contributions, four key themes of talent development, performance management, coaching talent, leadership development and talent acquisition, were highlighted in the higher education domain. Therefore, explored themes should be emphasised by Australian universities to increase their ranking and profits.
There were a number of the limitations in this study. It only targeted one country (Australia), one state (Queensland) and one sector (higher education). In addition, there were only six universities. Moreover, the contribution of this study only focused on talent as a single aspect. In addition, findings of this study cannot be generalised to other institutional settings. Further academic work would be useful to extend the investigation to a wider sample of institutions within various industries and sectors. A broader target area can improve the generalisation.
Talent development processes used in the Australian higher education
|Participants of individual interviews|
Al Ariss, A., Cascio, W.F. and Paauwe, J. (2014), “Talent management: current theories and future research directions”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 49 No. 2, pp. 173-179.
Al Saifi, S.A. (2014), “The nature of the relationships between social networks, interpersonal trust, management support, and knowledge sharing”, doctor of philosophy in management systems thesis, University of Waikato, Hamilton.
AlKerdawy, M.M.A. (2016), “The relationship between human resource management ambidexterity and talent management: the moderating role of electronic human resource management”, International Business Research, Vol. 9 No. 6, pp. 80-94.
Andersen, K. (2013), “Strategic talent management in a communicative perspective”, master thesis, Arts in Corporate Communication, Aarhus University.
Awan, A.G. and Farhan, H.M. (2016), “Talent management practices and their impact on job satisfaction of employees: a case study of banking sector in Pakistan”, Science International Lahore, Vol. 28 No. 2, pp. 1949-1955.
Beardwell, J. and Thompson, A. (2014), Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach, 7th ed., Pearson, Boston, MA.
Bersin, J. (2013), “Predictions for 2014: building a strong talent pipeline for the global economic recovery time for innovative and integrated talent and HR strategies”, Deloitte Development LLP, available at: www.bersin.com/uploadedFiles/122013PSGP.pdf (accessed 17 February 2017).
Bhatia, A. (2015), “An investigation of key strategies, practices and challenges facing talent management in IT industry: an exploratory study in India and Ireland”, master thesis, Business Administration, Dublin Business School, Dublin.
Bradley, A.P. (2016), “Talent management for universities”, Australian Universities’ Review, Vol. 58 No. 1, pp. 13-19.
Brédart, A., Marrel, A., Abetz-Webb, L., Lasch, K. and Acquadro, C. (2014), “Interviewing to develop patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures for clinical research: eliciting patients’ experience”, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 1-10.
Brennen, B.S. (2017), Qualitative Research Methods for Media Studies, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, New York, NY and London.
Brunila, A. and Baedecke Yllner, E. (2013), “Talent management: retaining and managing technical specialists in a technical career”, master thesis, Science, KTH Industrial Engineering and Management Industrial Management, Stockholm.
Bryman, A. (2015), Social Research Methods, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2007), Business Research Methods, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Carnegie, G.D. and Tuck, J. (2010), “Understanding the ABC of university governance”, Australian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 69 No. 4, pp. 431-441.
Chalanuchpong, W., Chan, J., Chisholm, M. and Nguyen, M. (2017), “Stakeholder analysis of the beaty biodiversity green roof”, bachelor’s thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Chami-Malaeb, R. and Garavan, T. (2013), “Talent and leadership development practices as drivers of intention to stay in Lebanese organisations: the mediating role of affective commitment”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 24 No. 21, pp. 4046-4062.
Chiou, B. (2014), “International education, student migration and government policy: a comparative study of Australia and New Zealand”, doctor of philosophy thesis, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland.
Choon Boey Lim, F. (2009), “Education hub at a crossroads: the development of quality assurance as a competitive tool for Singapore’s private tertiary education”, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 79-94.
Chuai, X. (2008), “Is talent management just old wine in new bottles?: the case of multinational corporations in Beijing”, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Teesside.
Cooke, F.L., Saini, D.S. and Wang, J. (2014), “Talent management in China and India: a comparison of management perceptions and human resource practices”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 49 No. 2, pp. 225-235.
Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. (2011), Business Research Methods, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY.
Creswell, J.W. (2014), Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 4th ed., SAGE, Los Angeles, CA, London, New Delhi and Singapore.
Cridland, E.K., Phillipson, L., Brennan-Horley, C. and Swaffer, K. (2016), “Reflections and recommendations for conducting in-depth interviews with people with dementia”, Qualitative Health Research, pp. 1-17.
Dalakoura, A. (2010), “Examining the effects of leadership development on firm performance”, Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 59-70.
Daraei, M.R., Karimi, O. and Vahidi, T. (2014), “An analysis on the relation between strategic knowledge management and talent management strategy in profitability of the Southern Khorasan Electric Distribution Company (SKEDC)”, Global Journal of Management and Business, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 21-35.
Davis, D.R. and Maldonado, C. (2015), “Shattering the glass ceiling: the leadership development of African American women in higher education”, Advancing Women in Leadership, Vol. 35, pp. 48-64.
Diezmann, C.M. (2018), “Understanding research strategies to improve ERA performance in Australian universities: circumventing secrecy to achieve success”, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp. 154-174.
Doody, O. and Noonan, M. (2013), “Preparing and conducting interviews to collect data”, Nurse Researcher, Vol. 20 No. 5, pp. 28-32.
Dopson, S., Ferlie, E., McGivern, G., Fischer, M.D., Ledger, J., Behrens, S. and Wilson, S. (2016), The Impact of Leadership and Leadership Development in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature and Evidence, 1st ed., Leadership Foundation for Higher Education, London.
Drisko, J.W. and Maschi, T. (2015), Content Analysis, Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
Durward, D. and Blohm, I. (2017), “The rise of crowd aggregators – how individual workers restructure their own crowd”, 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI), University of St Gallen, 12-15 February, pp. 395-409.
Dworkin, S.L. (2012), “Sample size policy for qualitative studies using in-depth interviews”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 41 No. 6, pp. 1319-1320.
Elo, S. and Kyngäs, H. (2008), “The qualitative content analysis process”, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 62 No. 1, pp. 107-115.
Ervo, L. (2016), “Facing people through language use – linguistic tools to make proceedings fair”, International Journal of Legal Discourse, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 277-293.
Ford, D.G. (2017), “Talent management and its relationship to successful veteran transition into the civilian workplace: practical integration strategies for the HRD professional”, Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 36-53.
Gallardo-Gallardo, E. and Thunnissen, M. (2016), “Standing on the shoulders of giants? A critical review of empirical talent management research”, Employee Relations, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 31-56.
Gallardo-Gallardo, E., Nijs, S., Dries, N. and Gallo, P. (2015), “Towards an understanding of talent management as a phenomenon-driven field using bibliometric and content analysis”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 264-279.
Garavan, T.N., Carbery, R., Rock, A., Garavan, T.N., Carbery, R. and Rock, A. (2012), “Mapping talent development: definition, scope and architecture”, European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 5-24.
Gateau, T. and Simon, L. (2016), “Clown scouting and casting at the Cirque du Soleil: designing boundary practices for talent development and knowledge creation”, International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 1-31.
Gupta, N. and Hilal, S. (2014), “Architectural framework of mobile based web miner”, 2014 International Conference on Reliability Optimization and Information Technology, IEEE, Faridabad, pp. 121-127.
Harmon, G. (2015), “Australia as an higher education exporter”, International Higher Education, Vol. 1 No. 42, pp. 14-16.
Hatcher, N. (2017), “Retention strategies of labor union membership”, doctor of business administration thesis, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.
Hazelkorn, E. (2017), Rankings and Higher Education: Reframing Relationships within and between States, Centre for Global Higher Education 2017, 2398-564X, UCL Institute of Education, London, available at: www.researchcghe.org/ (accessed 7 November 2017).
Hejase, H.J., Hejase, A.J., Mikdashi, G. and Bazeih, Z.F. (2016), “Talent management challenges: an exploratory assessment from Lebanon”, International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 504-520.
Horseman, N. (2018), “Benchmarking and rankings”, in Strike, T. (Ed.), Higher Education Strategy and Planning: A Professional Guide, 1st ed., Routledge, New York, NY, pp. 228-246.
Horváthová, P. and Durdová, I. (2011), “Talent management and its use in the field of human resources management in the organization of the Czech Republic”, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 5, pp. 794-809.
Howard, M., Stapleton, T., Van den Bergh, N., Yoder, R. and O’Shea, D. (2016), “The impact of a ‘vicious cycle’ on the daily functioning of a group of severely obese adults”, Clinical Obesity, Vol. 6 No. 5, pp. 341-353.
Johnsrud, K. (2016), “The challenges of performing it security preparedness exercises in organizations”, master’s thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.
Jolly, S. (2017), “Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar PV energy markets: contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal”, Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 77-92.
Jones, R. (2008), “Social capital: bridging the link between talent management and knowledge management”, in Vaiman, V. and Vance, C. (Eds), Smart Talent Management: Building Knowledge Assets for Competitive Advantage, Chapter 11, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Aldershot, pp. 217-233.
Joo, B.-K.B., Sushko, J.S. and McLean, G.N. (2012), “Multiple faces of coaching: manager-as-coach, executive coaching, and formal mentoring”, Organization Development Journal, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 19-38.
Jyoti, J., Rani, R. and Gandotra, R. (2015), “The impact of bundled high performance human resource practices on intention to leave: mediating role of emotional exhaustion”, International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 29 No. 4, pp. 431-460.
Kamal, M. (2017), “Challenges in talent management in selected public universities”, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Vol. 3 No. 5, pp. 583-587.
Kataike, S. (2013), “Relationship between talent management and employee retention in commercial banks in Kenya”, master thesis, Business Administration, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.
Keeley, T., Williamson, P., Callery, P., Jones, L., Mathers, J., Jones, J., Young, B. and Calvert, M. (2016), “The use of qualitative methods to inform Delphi surveys in core outcome set development”, Trials, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 1-9.
Kim, Y., Williams, R., Rothwell, W.J. and Penaloza, P. (2014), “A strategic model for technical talent management: a model based on a qualitative case study”, Performance Improvement Quarterly, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 93-121.
Kimathi, C.M. (2015), “Strategic talent management and performance of imperial bank limited in Kenya”, master (business administration) thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.
Kupfer, A., Kehr, F. and Tiefenbeck, V. (2016), “Towards a measurement scale for selftracking: attitudes and user characteristics”, Twenty-Fourth European Conference on Information Systems, Istanbul, pp. 1-11.
Lim, F.C.B. (2010), “Do too many rights make a wrong? A qualitative study of the experiences of a sample of Malaysian and Singapore private higher education providers in transnational quality assurance”, Quality in Higher Education, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 211-222.
Lockwood, N.R. (2006), “Talent management: driver for organizational success HR content program”, SHRM Research Quarterly, Vol. 51 No. 6, pp. 1-11.
Lynch, K. (2013), “Australian universities’ preparation and support for fly-in fly-out academics”, doctor of philosophy thesis, RMIT University Melbourne, Melbourne.
Lynch, K. (2015), “Control by numbers: new managerialism and ranking in higher education”, Critical Studies in Education, Vol. 56 No. 2, pp. 190-207.
Lyria, R.K. (2014), “Effect of talent management on organizational performance in companies listed in Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya”, doctor of philosophy (Human Resource Management) thesis, University of Agriculture and Technology, Harumicho.
Malmgren McGee, D. and Hedström, L. (2016), “Talent management – a study of attitudes among employees”, master thesis, Karlskrona.
Martínez-Gómez, A. (2014), “Interpreting in prison settings: an international overview”, Interpreting, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 233-259.
Mathew, A. (2015), “Talent management practices in select organizations in India”, Global Business Review, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 137-150.
Mayer, I. (2015), “Qualitative research with a focus on qualitative data analysis”, International Journal of Sales, Retailing & Marketing, Vol. 4 No. 9, pp. 53-67.
Meyers, M.C. and van Woerkom, M. (2014), “The influence of underlying philosophies on talent management: theory, implications for practice, and research agenda”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 49 No. 2, pp. 192-203.
Meyers, M.C., van Woerkom, M. and Dries, N. (2013), “Talent – innate or acquired? Theoretical considerations and their implications for talent management”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 23, pp. 305-321.
Moayedi, Z. and Vaseghi, M. (2016), “The effect of talent management on organizational success”, Scinzer Journal of Accounting and Management, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 16-20.
Mohammed, A., Baig, A.H. and Gururajan, R. (2018), “Talent management as a core source of innovation and social development in higher education”, in Parrish, D. (Ed.), Innovations in Higher Education-Cases on Transforming and Advancing Practice, IntechOpen, London, pp. 1-31.
Mohammed, A.A. (2018), Integrating Talent and Knowledge Management: Theory and Practice, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken.
Mohammed, A.A., Gururajan, R. and Hafeez-Baig, A. (2017), “Primarily investigating into the relationship between talent management and knowledge management in business environment”, International Conference on Web Intelligence, ACM, Leipzig, pp. 1131-1137.
Mohammed, A.A., Hafeez-Baig, A. and Gururajan, R. (2018), “A qualitative research to explore processes that are utilised for managing talent: a case study in a Queensland Regional University”, Australian Academy of Business and Economics Review, Vol. 4 No. 3, pp. 188-200.
Mohan, M.D., Muthaly, S. and Annakis, J. (2015), “Talent culture’s role in talent development among academics: insights from Malaysian government linked universities”, Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 46-71.
Mwangi, M.G., Njuki, H.M., Okoth, O.N., Onditi, E.O., Kinyanjui, S.N., Mwirigi, F.K. and Wanjiru, K.M. (2014), “Talent management and employee performance: growing young colleges to well established organization”, Developing Country Studies, Vol. 4 No. 17, pp. 111-118.
Ngulube, P. (2015), “Qualitative data analysis and interpretation: systematic search for meaning”, in Mathipa, E.R. and Gumbo, M. (Eds), Addressing Research Challenges: Making Headway for Developing Researchers, Mosala-Masedi Publishers & Booksellers CC, Noordwyk, pp. 131-156.
Nica, E. (2013), “The importance of leadership development within higher education”, Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 189-194.
Norhafizah, A.H. (2016), “The effect of talent- and knowledge management on the performance of SMEs: evidence from Malaysia”, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Kent, Canterbury.
Nyaribo, O.L. (2016), “The effect of non-financial compensation on employee performance of micro-finance institutions: a case of Wakenya Pamoja Sacco, Kisii County, Kenya”, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Vol. 2 No. 6, pp. 103-126.
Ortlieb, R. and Sieben, B. (2012), “How to safeguard critical resources of professional and managerial staff: exploration of a taxonomy of resource retention strategies”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23 No. 8, pp. 1688-1704.
Osigwelem, K.U. (2017), “Exploring the application of profile theory based strategy for managing talent positioning in a Nigerian higher education institution”, doctor of philosophy thesis, University of Sunderland, Sunderland.
Ozuem, W., Lancaster, G. and Sharma, H. (2016), “In search of balance between talent management and employee engagement in human resource management”, in Ariza-Montes, A. et al. (Eds), Strategic Labor Relations Management in Modern Organizations, Chapter 3, Business Science Reference: An imprint of IGI Global, PA, pp. 49-75.
Paulus, T.M. and Bennett, A.M. (2017), “‘I have a love–hate relationship with ATLAS.ti’™: integrating qualitative data analysis software into a graduate research methods course”, International Journal of Research & Method in Education, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 19-35.
Peet, M.R., Walsh, K., Sober, R. and Rawak, C.S. (2010), “Generative knowledge interviewing: a method for knowledge transfer and talent management at the University of Michigan”, International Journal of Educational Advancement, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 71-85.
Pelteret, M. (2014), Information Privacy Strategies of South African Financial Services Organisations, The Department of Information Systems of the University of Cape Town, Cape.
Prinsloo, H. (2017), “How South African businesses design and execute transformation initiatives: implications for coaching”, Master of Business Executive Coaching thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Randhawa, N. (2017), “The changing dynamics of talent acquisition”, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Vol. 3 No. 6, pp. 1137-1142.
Refozar, R.F.G., Buenviaje, M.G., Perez, M.P., Manongsong, J.L. and Laguador, J.M. (2017), “Extent of leader motivating language on faculty members’ job satisfaction from a higher education institution”, Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3, pp. 99-107.
Rothwell, W.J. (2005), Effective Succession Planning: Ensuring Leadership Continuity and Building Talent from Within, 3rd ed., AMACOM/American Management Association, New York, NY.
Rothwell, W.J. (2011), Invaluable Knowledge Securing your Company’s Technical Expertise, AMACOM/American Management Association, New York, NY, available at: http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://library.books24x7.com/library.asp?^B&bookid=36898
Rothwell, W.J., Zaballero, A.G. and Park, J.G. (2014), Optimizing Talent in the Federal Workforce, Management Concepts, Tysons Corner, VA.
Rudhumbu, N. and Maphosa, C. (2015), “Implementation of talent management strategies in higher education: evidence from Botswana”, Journal of Human Ecology, Vol. 19 Nos 1/2, pp. 21-32.
Saberiyan, A.G. (2015), “Owner’s role in brownfield remediation: the brownfield experts’ perspective”, doctor of philosophy (Civil Engineering) thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
Scaringella, L. and Malaeb, R.C. (2014), “Contributions of talent people to knowledge management”, The Journal of Applied Business Research, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 715-724.
Shabane, T.S. (2017), “The integration of talent management and knowledge management in the South African public service”, Masters of Commerce in Business Management thesis, University of South Africa, Pretoria.
Shah, M. and Jarzabkowski, L. (2013), “The Australian higher education quality assurance framework: from improvement-led to compliance-driven”, Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 96-106.
Sigvaldadóttir, A. and Taylor, A. (2016), Rethinking Competitive Strategy in Mature Industries: An Externally-Focused In-Depth Study into How Companies in Mature Industries can Rethink their Competitive Strategies, Lund University, Lund.
Silverman, D. (2014), Interpreting Qualitative Data, 5th ed., Sage, London.
Silzer, R. and Dowell, B. (2010), “Strategic talent management matters”, in Silzer, R. and Dowell, B. (Eds), Strategy-Driven Talent Management: A Leadership Imperative, Chapter 1, A Wiley Imprint, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 3-72.
Tafti, M.M., Tafti, M.M., Mahmoudsalehi, M., Mahmoudsalehi, M., Amiri, M. and Amiri, M. (2017), “Critical success factors, challenges and obstacles in talent management”, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 49 No. 1, pp. 15-21.
Tarique, I. and Schuler, R.S. (2010), “Global talent management: literature review, integrative framework, and suggestions for further research”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 45 No. 2, pp. 122-133.
Tatoglu, E., Glaister, A.J. and Demirbag, M. (2016), “Talent management motives and practices in an emerging market: a comparison between MNEs and local firms”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 51 No. 2, pp. 278-293.
Terblanche, N.N.H., Albertyn, R.M. and van Coller-Peter, S. (2017), “Designing a coaching intervention to support leaders promoted into senior positions”, SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 1-10.
Tharenou, P., Donohue, R. and Cooper, B. (2007), Management Research Methods, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne.
Thomas, S.J. (2015), “Exploring strategies for retaining information technology professionals: a case study”, Doctor philosophy in business administration thesis, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.
Tong, A., Winkelmayer, W.C. and Craig, J.C. (2014), “Qualitative research in CKD: an overview of methods and applications”, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 64 No. 3, pp. 338-346.
Urbancová, H. and Vnoučková, L. (2015), “Application of talent and knowledge management in the Czech and Slovak Republics: first empirical approaches”, Economic Annals, Vol. LX No. 205, pp. 105-137.
Van den Broek, J., Boselie, P. and Paauwe, J. (2018), “Cooperative innovation through a talent management pool: a qualitative study on coopetition in healthcare”, European Management Journal, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 135-144.
Veronese, G., Pepe, A. and Afana, A. (2016), “Conceptualizing the well-being of helpers living and working in war-like conditions: a mixed-method approach”, International Social Work, Vol. 59 No. 6, pp. 938-952.
Vnoučková, L., Urbancová, H. and Smolová, H. (2016), “Identification and development of key talents through competency modelling in agriculture companies”, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, Vol. 64 No. 4, pp. 1409-1419.
Waheed, S., Zaim, A. and Zaim, H. (2013), “Talent management in four stages”, The USV Annals of Economics and Public Administration, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 130-137.
Walker, S.K. (2017), “Retention strategies for reducing voluntary turnover in a higher education institution”, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.
Woods, M. (2011), Interviewing for Research and Analysing Qualitative Data: An Overview, Massey University, Wellington, available at: http://owll.massey.ac.nz/pdf/interviewing-forresearch-and-analysing-qualitative-data.pdf
Wu, M.-C., Nurhadi, D. and Zahro, S. (2016), “Integrating the talent management program as a new concept to develop a sustainable human resource at higher educational institutions”, International Journal of Organizational Innovation, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 146-161.
Xue, Y. (2014), “Talent management practices of selected human resource professionals in middle to large-sized manufacturing multinational companies in China”, doctor of philosophy thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, PA.
Yap, Y.Y. (2016), “Relationship between employees engagement, career development, organisational culture, psychological ownership and staff’s talent management in service industry”, master’s thesis, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Petaling Jaya.
Zikmund, W.G., Babin, B.J. and Griffin, M. (2013), Business Research Methods, 9th ed., South-Western, Mason, OH.
Alicja, M. (2007), Theory and Practice of Talent Management in an Organization, Cracow University of Economics, Kraków.
Gallardo-Gallardo, E. (2011), “What do we actually mean by talent in business? Does it really matter?”, Eighth International Workshop on Human Resource Management, E11/258, DdTdlfdEi Empresa, Col.lecció de’Economia, Seville.
The authors thank the participants at the selected universities for their valuable contribution.