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Mixed-methods approach to investigating the diffusion of FinTech services: enriching the applicability of TOE and UTAUT models

Mohamed Bouteraa (Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 30 May 2024

Issue publication date: 12 July 2024




The rapid global use of Financial Technology (FinTech), an innovative and advanced technology, is leading to the replacement of traditional financial services. Despite this, consumers in the United Arab Emirates are still not accepting FinTech services as anticipated. This study aims to investigate the barriers preventing consumers from using FinTech services in the banking industry based on the technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework and anchored by the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT).


The current study used an exploratory sequential mixed-method design. A purposive sample was used to conduct preliminary semi-structured interviews with ten banking practitioners. These interviews aimed to explore the obstacles that hinder consumers from adopting FinTech services. To provide further empirical validation, the conceptual model has been systematically examined through a quantitative cross-sectional online survey encompassing a sample of 332 bank customers.


The qualitative investigation highlighted six new barriers to the usage of FinTech based on TOE’s model attributes. Through quantitative data analysis, the preliminary qualitative findings were primarily verified. It was discovered that self-efficacy, electronic word-of-mouth, system quality and bank image substantially influence consumers to use FinTech services, in addition to performance expectancy and facilitating conditions. Meanwhile, IT features and governmental support were found to have insignificant effects. Yet, government support was found to have a positive moderating role in strengthening social influence and system quality towards customer use of FinTech. Thus, the research supports the UTAUT and TOE models’ fitness for explaining FinTech usage with high predictive relevance.


This study is the authors’ pioneering effort to propose a comprehensive research framework that integrates the UTAUT and TOE models to tackle the limited adoption of FinTech services among consumers. Moreover, the study specifically examined the moderating influence of government support to propose an integrated model. Remarkably, this study is one of the initial attempts to investigate the adoption of FinTech using a mixed-methodology approach by incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods within a single inquiry to yield more comprehensive and insightful findings than research that relies on a single method.



Bouteraa, M. (2024), "Mixed-methods approach to investigating the diffusion of FinTech services: enriching the applicability of TOE and UTAUT models", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 15 No. 8, pp. 2036-2068.



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