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Halal six sigma framework for defects reduction

Iwan Vanany (Department of Industrial Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia)
Kim Hua Tan (Business School, University of Nottingham – Jubilee Campus, Nottingham, UK)
Nurhadi Siswanto (Department of Industrial Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia)
Niniet Indah Arvitrida (Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia)
Firman Mega Pahlawan (Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 6 April 2020

Issue publication date: 12 May 2021




In recent years, halal food industries are facing a high level of competition. The growing demand for halal food means firms are working hard to improve quality and reduce halal food defects. The purpose of this study is to propose a halal-based six sigma (SS) framework that could be used to reduce halal food defects and improve compliance.


The proposed halal six sigma (HSS) framework has five phases based on the define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) approach. The proposed framework also integrates halal assurance system requirements into HSS to ensure compliance. Tools used in the proposed model include SIPOC tools, Pareto diagram, root cause analysis and the improvement process flows. A case study in a chicken meat company is used to test and validate the proposed framework. In case of study research, brainstorming was used to review an initial proposed framework and focus group discussions were used to determine feasible improvement actions.


The results showed that the proposed HSS framework could be effective to detect and reduce the halal defects and lower the halal defect costs. By adopting the framework, the case firm was able to lower halal defect costs significantly and increase the SS level.

Practical implications

SS approach can be designed and adapted to specific food industry. HSS framework could provide a systematic approach to reduce halal food defects and sustain the improvement efforts. The proposed HSS framework is also easy to use to understand halal critical points and improve halal compliance.


This study proposed a HSS framework that can be adopted to reduce halal food defects and costs. This proposed framework will benefit the halal food industry intending to realize zero halal food defects and lower production costs. The limited number of publications in the research theme of halal food defects show that there is a significant gap in the existing body of knowledge.



Vanany, I., Hua Tan, K., Siswanto, N., Arvitrida, N.I. and Pahlawan, F.M. (2021), "Halal six sigma framework for defects reduction", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 776-793.



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