The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the determinants of purchase intention of Halal vaccination and compare the results between Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan. It focuses on analyzing the influence of various factors on the purchase intention of Halal vaccination and determining whether the relationships are significantly different in the two Muslim-majority countries.
The study is based on the extended theory of planned behavior and self-congruity theory. The variable of religiosity was added with the three variables of the theory of planned behavior, i.e. attitude toward Halal vaccinations, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. It shows the congruity between Muslim consumer and Islamic brands and proposes a wider range of determinants in the framework. The study’s sample size was 378, and the respondents were Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan. Purposive sampling technique was used to extract the sample from three cities in each country. Partial least square (PLS) was used to statistically analyze the data using PLS–structural equation modeling approach. The measurement model was analyzed, and invariance of the measurement model was established. Afterward, the hypotheses were tested, and multi-group analysis was performed through Henseler’s multi-group analysis (MGA) and Permutation test.
The results indicate a lack of significant relationships between the independent variables and the purchase intention of Halal vaccination except in the case of subjective norms. This construct has a significant but inverse relationship in the case of Pakistan’s Muslim consumers, which can be attributed to the presence of consumer skepticism regarding the issue of Halal vaccination. The MGA results reveal a statistically significant difference in the influence of religiosity on purchase intention between the two countries, depicting differences in the brand–self congruity perceptions of consumers in the two countries.
The sample size was relatively small due to the limited time duration.
The area of Halal vaccination has been given limited attention in academic literature. This study addresses this area that has limited research and is greatly attractive to a large number of brands targeting the Muslim consumer market. The results of the study can form a foundation for creating the branding strategy of this product category and assessing its demand in various Muslim markets.
Bukhari, S.N.Z., Isa, S.M. and Yen Nee, G. (2021), "Halal vaccination purchase intention: A comparative study between Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 670-689. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-10-2019-0209
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