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Putting eggs in a different basket: a typology of Islamic symbols and services

Mohsin Abdur Rehman (Al Futtaim Motors, Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
Sarminah Samad (Department of Business Administration, College of Business and Administration, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Muhammad Kashif (Faculty of Management Sciences, GIFT University, Gujranwala, Pakistan)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 26 September 2018

Issue publication date: 18 October 2018




This study aims to explore how consumers gain identity from consumption of religious symbols in a Muslim, collectivist cultural context.


The authors interviewed 63 consumers, recruited by means of a purposive sampling technique. The interviews focused on exploration of Islamic services and religious symbols which were later categorized as high and low religious symbols and services.


The results reveal a typology of religious symbols and Islamic religious services as perceived by Muslim informants. They recalled Mosque for prayer, Hijab for promotion of Islamic education and Khana Kaaba for performance of Hajj and Umrah services. Furthermore, the spiritual and emotional connections via consumption of Islamic acts as services are explored.

Practical Implications

The marketing managers need to understand and realize the importance of these classifications. A symbol which is perceived as non-religious must be avoided while branding various services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to advocate performance of religious activities in addition to consumption of various service brands. This can really add value to the lives of Muslim consumers – a realization that can emotionally connect consumers with service brands. However, religion is of paramount importance while designing, offering and promoting services.


The study of services marketing based on consumption of religious symbols and services in a Muslim context are unique to this study. The typology of low and high religious services and symbols is also significant contribution of this study.



Abdur Rehman, M., Samad, S. and Kashif, M. (2018), "Putting eggs in a different basket: a typology of Islamic symbols and services", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 935-950.



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