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Understanding non-Muslims’ reluctance to halal food: a systematic review

Mohd Anuar Ramli (Department of Fiqh and Usul, Academy of Islamic Studies, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Muhamad Afiq Abd Razak (Academy of Contemporary Islamic Studies (ACIS), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia)
Mohamad Hasif Jaafar (Academy of Contemporary Islamic Studies (ACIS), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia and Penyelidik Halal Kontemporari (P-HaC), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 18 November 2021

Issue publication date: 26 January 2023

1056

Abstract

Purpose

To tap into the global market, it is important to evaluate and predict the trends of the acceptance of non-Muslims towards halal food products. This review paper aimed to evaluate the evidence relating to the potential barriers to the acceptance of halal food among non-Muslim consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors searched ScienceDirect, Scopus, Emerald and JSTOR databases. The search for the studies was performed without restrictions by using the terms “Non-Muslim” OR “Jews” OR “Christian” OR “Hindu” OR “Buddha” AND “halal” OR “halalan toyyiban” OR “sharia compliance” AND “food” OR “dietary” AND “perception” OR “opinion” OR “attitude” OR “barrier”. Quantitative studies were included, and the quality of the studies was assessed with the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool.

Findings

Two themes were identified to be the potential barriers in the acceptance of halal food among non-Muslim consumers. There were two major factors: weak intention (negative attitude, perceived low behavioural control and perceived low subjective norms) and lack of food safety awareness, whereas the minor factors were as follows: perceived low food quality, halal logo/brand, lack of halal awareness, religious belief, animal welfare, consumer motive, low confidence level, lack of proper marketing/promotion, bad cognitive dissonance, bad food assurance and poor product judgement.

Practical implications

By realising these potential barriers, it will benefit many parties including stakeholders and the food industry to improve their strategy to expand the halal market, especially for non-Muslims.

Originality/value

Based on the findings, the authors believe that while research towards halal needs to continue and improve its basis in theory and design, researchers and food marketers can be confident that intention of purchasing halal food products can be increased by securing the aspect of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control as well as food safety awareness. Based on the identification of these potential barriers, this review hopes to further explain effective methods of communication for conveying halal concept in different parts of the countries.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

This research has been made possible with the funding from Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE) under research grant FRGS/1/2018/SSI03/UM/02/08, “The Development of Food Defense Model To Address Criminal Threat & Food Terrorism In Halalan Tayyiban Food Chain In Malaysia”. The authors would also like to thank the University of Technology MARA and Universiti Malaya for the completion of this paper.

Citation

Ramli, M.A., Abd Razak, M.A. and Jaafar, M.H. (2023), "Understanding non-Muslims’ reluctance to halal food: a systematic review", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 544-561. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-05-2021-0134

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

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