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Ascertaining the “Halalness” of restaurants – scale development and validation

Ghazala Khan (Department of Marketing, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia)
Faiza Khan (Business School, University College Birmingham, Birmingham, UK)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 4 December 2018

Issue publication date: 6 June 2019




The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a measurement scale for determining the “Halalness” of restaurants and related behaviour among Muslim consumers in the absence of the halal logo. The study responded to scholarly calls for further research in exploring the consumption practices of Muslims.


The scale was developed and validated using a rigorous methodology recommended in the scale development literature. The study used a total sample of 438 (66 respondents for pilot study, 208 for exploratory survey and 164 for the confirmatory survey) to collect the data. Reliability and validity of the measurement scale was established through average variance extracted, Cronbach’s alpha, composite reliability, critical ratios and discriminant validity.


The results from the exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory analysis propose a three-dimensional measurement scale with 14 items for establishing the “Halalness” of restaurants and including social servicescape; neighbourhood and behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

The study was unable to validate a number of cues and behaviour such as the presence of images in the restaurant or consumer responses to the presence of alcohol. The researchers are therefore encouraged to test these cues.


The study addresses a gap in Islamic literature, and it is among the first to provide conceptualisation and empirically validate a scale for measuring the “Halalness” of restaurants. The scale was tested and validated based on samples drawn from two different countries, thereby allowing for generalizability.



Khan, G. and Khan, F. (2019), "Ascertaining the “Halalness” of restaurants – scale development and validation", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 426-439.



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