To read this content please select one of the options below:

Exploring pro-environmental behavior in Azerbaijan: an extended value-belief-norm approach

Ulkar Trautwein (Chamber of Crafts and Trades Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany)
Javid Babazade (RBC Capital Markets, Toronto, Canada)
Stefan Trautwein (Center for Public and Non-Profit Management, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany)
Jörg Lindenmeier (Center for Public and Non-Profit Management, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 23 October 2021

Issue publication date: 26 January 2023




This paper aims to explore pro-environmental behavior (PEB) in Azerbaijan. Therefore, the authors used value-belief-norm (VBN) theory, extended by the construct of social norms (SN), as a basis.


Data were collected by establishing a link within various social media platforms. The final sample consisted of 407 respondents. The authors analyzed four dimensions of PEB using higher-order structural equations. The authors also examined both direct and (serial) indirect effects for cross-cultural validation of the extended VBN theory.


The authors were able to confirm the VBN theory in its entirety. However, SN, which are influential in collectivistic and Sunni-majority states, do not contribute significantly to explaining PEB in predominantly Shiite Azerbaijan.

Research limitations/implications

The authors could not establish a direct effect of SN on PEB within this study. However, the authors observed an indirect “values-beliefs-norms-behavior” effect. The different (partly abbreviated) effect channels of the four tested value antecedents provide interesting insights for marketing research.

Practical implications

Based on the results, it seems crucial to make Muslim consumers aware of the negative outcomes of their consumption behavior and to emphasize individual responsibility. However, SN may not need to be addressed depending on cultural and/or religious values.


The authors examined PEB in Azerbaijan by testing the serial mediation effects in the VBN model. Further, the authors tested the influence of SN within the framework of the original VBN theory, contributing to a better understanding of the possibility of integrating components of the theory of planned behavior.



Trautwein, U., Babazade, J., Trautwein, S. and Lindenmeier, J. (2023), "Exploring pro-environmental behavior in Azerbaijan: an extended value-belief-norm approach", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 523-543.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles