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Meat consumers and Islamic scholars’ understanding of humane slaughter, and effects of pre-slaughter stunning on meat purchasing decisions in Ghana

Richard Badu (Department of Animal Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana)
Moses Teye (Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana)
Richard Kwasi Bannor (Department of Agricultural Economics Agribusiness and Extension, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana)
Fuseini Awal (Department of Management, University of Huddersfield Business School, Huddersfield, UK)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 23 October 2021

Issue publication date: 26 January 2023




This paper aims to seek the understanding and opinion of meat consumers and Islamic scholars in Ghana, on preslaughter stunning of livestock, and its effects on meat patronage by consumers.


A total of 170 meat consumers and 19 Islamic Scholars were interviewed to examine their perception and levels of understanding of pre-slaughter stunning of livestock, and whether stunning had any influence on their meat purchasing decisions. Descriptive statistics and Probit regression model were used to analyse the data obtained.


It was observed that majority (94.4%) of the meat consumers had no idea on what pre-slaughter stunning of livestock entails. However, 32.7% concurred that stunning is capable of reducing the pain associated with neck cutting of slaughter animals. Evidence from the Probit analysis suggested that variables such as age, marital status, religion, source of meat, product label and Muslims’ religiosity negatively influenced the willingness to consume meat from animals stunned prior to slaughter. In contrast, variables such as gender, knowledge on stunning, beef as the preferred meat, pain reduction and knowledge on stunning, positively influenced the willingness to consume same. The level of education and knowledge on pre-stunning is associated with the acceptance of pre-slaughter stunning of livestock among Islamic Scholars

Research limitations/implications

Even though the study is Islamic oriented, majority of the respondents except the Islamic scholars were non-Muslims. Given this, the implications of the study have been differentiated for both Muslims and non-Muslims.

Practical implications

The findings present an opportunity for researchers, retailers and Islamic scholars to increase education around different slaughter technologies so that consumers can understand these methods to make informed purchasing decisions. Higher educational institutions such as agriculture and veterinary schools can also use the findings to develop future modules around animal welfare. The research can also inform governments, non-governmental organisations and retailers in the formulation of future policies on animal welfare. Further research is also needed to investigate the welfare aspects of slaughter with and without stunning and how to address any lapses in animal welfare.

Social implications

From animal welfare standpoint, the results may be interpreted to imply that consumers’ purchasing decisions are not based on animal welfare indices. From halal perspective, it implies that Muslims are consuming products that may have been slaughtered using stunning techniques that contravene the rules of halal slaughter.


Despite the popularity of pre-slaughter stunning and relative literature in the industrialised world, it appears to be less researched in developing countries like Ghana. Besides, there is a lack of consensus among Islamic jurists in interpreting Islamic scriptures on pre-stunning. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies on the reasons apart from the interpretation of Islamic scriptures, which influences Islamic scholars' stance on pre-stunning in Ghana.



The authors are grateful to Dr Kofi Atia of the University of Cape Coast for his assistance in reaching out to the Islamic scholars.

Declaration of Competing Interest: None.

Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.


Badu, R., Teye, M., Bannor, R. and Awal, F. (2023), "Meat consumers and Islamic scholars’ understanding of humane slaughter, and effects of pre-slaughter stunning on meat purchasing decisions in Ghana", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 504-522.



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