The purpose of this paper is to implement the istibdal waqf concept using a geographical information system (GIS) for the benefit of socio-economics and Muslim cemetery waqf management. GIS is a technique that provides clearer, precise and faster access to a location based on actual space data. It attempts to analyze the area that one wishes to develop to establish whether it fulfills the criteria set for istibdal.
This research was conducted qualitatively. The study begins with the development of the concept of istibdal waqf and the concept of GIS. The concept was developed by conducting a literature review of books, articles, newspapers, fatwa and circulars related to istibdal waqf and GIS. After the concept was formed, field studies were conducted on two mosques, namely, Jamek Jelutong Mosque and Masjid Jamek Sungai Nibong because both mosques have gravesites located within their compound. To obtain information on the problems faced by the mosques Jemaah community, researchers have interviewed the Mosque Committee Members and Jemaah Community in both mosques using the unstructured interviewing method. This process is essential in managing both material and spiritual for sustaining socio-economics of the society.
The results showed that by applying GIS technique could identify new land locations according to the criteria set by istibdal. Additionally, new location environments found through the GIS application can be viewed more clearly and accurately than using the manual method. The findings also revealed that some of the mosque managers and the heirs of the waqf grave land were not open-minded in accepting the istibdal concept of the grave that had been allowed by the Syarak until the process of expanding the mosque was affected. The study also found that the maslahah consideration was considered between doing istibdal waqf and not doing istibdal waqf, the maslahah of doing istibdal waqf is greater because general (umum) maslahah should be prioritized compared to the special (khusus) maslahah. In addition, this effort can appreciate the morality and ethics of waqf donors to donate their wealth or properties for benefit of society.
This study only focuses on Muslim cemetery waqf in Penang Island.
This study is expected to benefit both material and spiritual where Muslim cemetery site can be developed for expanding mosque site and consequently able to accommodate the increasing of Muslim using the mosque.
This study proposes the transformation of the concept of istibdal waqf from the traditional methods to modern and advanced methods using the GIS application. The study also demonstrates how the software for solving the real problem can be used, i.e. the problem of a limited mosque space for sharing space with a cemetery in Penang.
Asni, F., Mahamud, M. and Sulong, J. (2020), "Socio-economics and management of Muslim cemetery
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