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Perceptions of hotel managers on future of all-inclusive system after COVID-19: the context of technology hygiene and cost cycle

Oğuz Diker (Faculty of Applied Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey)
Ayşen Akbaş Tuna (School of Banking and Insurance, Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Ankara, Turkey)
Muzaffer Uysal (Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA)
Muharrem Tuna (Department of Tourism Management, Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Ankara, Turkey)

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology

ISSN: 1757-9880

Article publication date: 23 May 2022

Issue publication date: 12 July 2022




The all-inclusive system comprises a large share of supply and demand in the worldwide tourism market. All-inclusive system investments occupy a large place in the Mediterranean coastline, especially in Turkey. The risk that may arise for hotels operating with the all-inclusive system will affect the whole market in terms of supply and demand. The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of the managers regarding the changes that may occur in demand and supply in the all-inclusive system after the COVID-19 pandemic and their consequences without disturbing the cost balance in an all-inclusive system.


The research was conducted by using an online interview method with a semi-structured interview form that includes questions on the effects of COVID-19 on all-inclusive systems. Obtained data were analyzed by using content analysis methods.


The findings suggest that COVID-19 directly or indirectly influences visitor expectations and behavior, use of physical space and services provided in all-inclusive system within the technology, hygiene and cost cycle. Because of the effect of COVID-19, there have been important alterations in the use of physical space and service contents. Related changes brought about the pressure to reduce costs. Ensuring the managerial balance for these costs, which cannot be subsidized with direct prices, will provide priority with regard to both competitive advantages and managing the risk perception.


There are limited studies on all-inclusive systems and operations. Additionally, there is a lack of studies based on managers’ perceptions of the future of all-inclusive. This study contributes toward a better understanding of perceptions about the future of high-demand all-inclusive systems within the effect of COVID-19 through the eyes of hotel managers. This study differs from existing literature by attempting to determine new ways to enrich service contents for risk management without changing cost structure and revealing strategies for effective sustainability of all-inclusive systems.


全包式系统在全球旅游市场的供需中占有很大份额。全包式系统投资在地中海海岸线, 尤其是在土耳其占据很大的位置。以全包制运营的酒店可能出现的风险将影响整个旅游市场的供求关系。本研究的目的是确定管理人员对 COVID-19 大流行后全包系统的供需变化, 以及在不干扰全包系统中的成本平衡的前提下对其后果的看法。


该研究是通过使用在线访谈方法和半结构化访谈形式进行的, 其中包括关于 COVID-19 对全包系统的影响的问题。使用内容分析方法对获得的数据进行分析。


结果显示了 COVID-19 对游客期望和行为、全包式系统设施中物理空间的使用以及全包式系统提供的在技术、卫生和成本周期内预测的在全包系统设施中提供的服务内容。由于 COVID-19 的影响, 物理空间的使用和服务内容发生了重要变化。相关变化带来了降低成本的压力。确保这些成本无法通过直接价格补贴的管理平衡会为竞争优势和管理风险认知提供优先权。


目前对全包系统和运营的研究比较有限。此外, 已有文献缺乏基于管理者角度对全包式未来的看法的研究。本研究通过酒店经理的视角能更好地理解在 COVID-19 影响下对高需求全包系统的未来的看法。本研究与现有文献的不同之处在于, 试图确定在不改变成本结构的情况下丰富风险管理服务内容的新方法, 并揭示全包系统有效可持续性的策略。


COVID-19, 全包系统, 技术, 卫生, 成本

文章类型: 研究型论文



Diker, O., Akbaş Tuna, A., Uysal, M. and Tuna, M. (2022), "Perceptions of hotel managers on future of all-inclusive system after COVID-19: the context of technology hygiene and cost cycle", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 573-589.



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